History of the English Language

Topics: Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Verb Pages: 6 (1035 words) Published: May 25, 2013
Analysis of Piers Plowman

Somer: sb. Summer. M. nom sg
seson: sb. Season.
Sonne: sb. Son. Dat nominal
Heremite: sb. hermit. Dat nominal
Workes: sb. work. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
World: sb. world
Wondres: sb. wonders. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
May: sb. The month of May
Maluerne: sb. marvel. Dat nominal
Banke: sb. bank. Dat nominal
Wateres: sb. water. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Wildernesse: sb. Wilderness
Toure: sb. tower. Dat nominal
Dongeon: sb. The highest tower of a castle
Dyches: sb. Ditch. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Maner: sb. Manor
Men: sb. Men
Wordle: sb. World. Dat nominal
Glotonye: sb. Gluttony
Contenaunce: sb. Countenaunce
Clothing: sb. Clothing
Prayers: sb. Prayer
Penance: sb. Penance. Dat nominal
Loue: sb. Love. Dat nominal
Lorde: sb. Lord. Dat nominal
Hope: sb. Hope. Dat nominal
Selles: sb. Cell. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Contre: sb. Country
Lykam: sb. Body
Enuye: sb. Envy. Nom/dat/acc sg
Schrifte: sb. Confession
Palsye: sb. Paralysis. Nom/dat/acc sg
Frères: sb. Friar. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Frokke: sb. Frock. Nom/dat/acc sg
Body: sb. Body
Wratthe: sb. Anger. Nom/dat/acc sg
Werkes: sb. work. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Wordes: sb. word. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Tyme: sb. Time. Nom/dat/acc sg
Addres: sb. snake. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Tonge: sb. Tongue. Nom/dat/acc sg
Bakbitynge: sb. Calumny. Nom/dat/acc sg
Witnesse: sb. Testimony. Nom/dat/acc sg
Curteisye: sb. Courtesy. Nom/dat/acc sg
Yshryue: sb. Confession. Nom/dat/acc sg
Scherewe: sb. Miserable. Nom/dat/acc sg
Chese: sb. Cheese. Nom/dat/acc sg
Neighbore: sb. Neighbor. Nom/dat/acc sg
Lordes: sb. Lord. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Siluer: sb. Silver
Lyf: sb. Life
Mete: sb. Encounter. Nom/dat/acc sg
Frende: sb. Friend. Nom/dat/acc sg
Wille: sb. Will. Nom/dat/acc sg
Kirke: sb. Church. Nom/dat/acc sg
Knele: sb. Knees. Nom/dat/acc sg
Poeple: sb. people. Nom/dat/acc sg
Prest: sb priest
Pilgrims: sb. Pilgrim
Palmers: sb. Palm
Cryste: sb. Christ. Nom/dat/acc sg
Sorwe: sb. Pity. Nom/dat/acc sg
Bolle: sb. bowl. Nom/dat/acc sg
Lesynge: sb. Loss. Nom/dat/acc sg
Herte: sb. Heart. Nom/dat/acc sg
Wynnynge: sb. Profit. Nom/dat/acc sg
Sore: sb. Pain. Nom/dat/acc sg
Dogge: sb. Dog. Nom/dat/acc sg
Galle: sb. Sore; Lat. Galla
Sugre: sb. Sugar. Nom/dat/acc sg
Swellynge: sb. Inflammation. Nom/dat/acc sg
Schrifte: sb. Confession. Nom/dat/acc sg
Repentaunce: sb. Repentance. Nom/dat/acc sg
Synnes: sb. Sin. The rounded vowel descending from Old English y usually survived in all positions except before nasals. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl Sauacioun: sb. Salvation, Lat. Salvationem
Soules: sb. Soul. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Venge: sb. Revenge. Nom/dat/acc sg
Burgeyses: sb. Bourgeois. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Dwellynge: sb. Home. Nom/dat/acc sg
Londoun: sb. London
Bakbitinge: sb. Backbiting. Nom/dat/acc sg
Brocoure: sb. Broke. Lat. Abrocatorem
Mennes: sb. a mean, mediator. Gen sg/ nom/gen/dat/acc pl
Chaffare: sb. Business. Nom/dat/acc sg
God: sb. God
Plow: sb. measure of land
Rode: sb.a road, a riding. M, acc sg
Sweuene: sb. Dream. Nom/dat/acc sg
Reste: sb. Rest. Nom/dat/acc sg
Meschaunce: sb. Mischange. Nom/dat/acc sg
Had: sb. state, order, rank, person
Cry: sb. cry
Wastours: sb. a destroyer

Nouns still have a genitive singular ending- es. In the plural, the Old English nominative and accusative –as simplify to –es for all cases in Middle English. In early Middle English, there are some dative nominal endings in –e. especially after prepositions.


In: prep. In
On: Prep. On
Vnder: Prep. Under
To: prep. To
For: prep. For
Of: prep. Of
Bi: prep. By
Bytwene: prep. Between
With: prep. With
Amonges: prep. Among
Lyke: like

Whan: when
Where: where

Ac: but
And: and
After: after
Thane: Then
Thus: Thus
Bote: without, except


Hym: him. Third person sg Dat/Acc
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