History of Science and Technology

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Science and Technology has been around from the beginning of time. It evolved from the everyday efforts of people trying to improve their way of life. Throughout history, humankind has developed and utilized tools, machines, and techniques without understanding how or why they worked or comprehending their physical or chemical composition. Before we go any further a definition has to be given for both Science and Technology because they are both different in their own right even though the two are almost indistinguishable. According to the Oxford Dictionary Technology can be defined as the knowledge or use of the mechanical arts and applied sciences, while Science can be defined as the branch of knowledge involving systematized observation and experiment. Science can be further divided into three separate categories; Pure, Applied and Natural Sciences. In addition technology is often defined as applied science, it is simply the application of scientific knowledge to achieve a specific human purpose, however, historical evidence suggests technology is a product of science. Today there are many technological advancement to enhance our daily activities, whether it be as simple as an Ipod for entertainment purposes or as vital as an artificial heart for the survival of a human live, science and technology is the reason for its existence. Science and Technology can be traced from the origin of human life 2 million years ago and each era has significant advancement. The earliest known form of S&T were human artefacts found during prehistoric time about 2.3 million years ago, they were roughly shaped stones used for chopping and scraping, found primarily in eastern Africa. Some of the earliest record of science came from Mesopotamian cultures around 400 BC, disease symptoms, chemical substances and astronomical observations were some of the evidence of emerging science. During the same period in the Nile Valley of Egypt information on the treatment of wounds and diseases and even some the mathematical calculations you are currently doing now in fifth form such as angles, rectangles, triangles and the volume of a portion of a pyramid have been around for thousands of years. From 300-400 BC there was a rise in philosophers who wrote topics on psychology, biology, psychology and a host of others. There was Euclid the founder of modern geometry, Archimedes the founder of engineering mechanics who calculated a value for pi which we still use up to this very day and he also invented the first water pump. Also in 300 B.C., Aristarchus proposed that the earth revolves around the sun and calculated the diameter of the earth. Some early forms of technology were the control of fire, the creation of wheel as a mean of transportation and the discovery of metal. Fire is one of the biggest discoveries in human kind, by maintaining fire obtained by natural source such as striking flint against stone to produce sparks, early men were able to bake clay pots which were used to cook, and also use the fire as a mean of light source and heat. 3000 B.C. gave rise to the Bronze Age were in the search of finding pigments used to colour human skin, copper was discovered, then it was realized that if alloying copper with tin resulted into bronze which in those days were used to make swords and other weaponry and today we use it to build machinery, medals, statue, belt and shoe buckle. By 3500 B.C. in Mesopotamia, two-wheeled carts had been created and it became the most frequently used mode of transporting heavy goods from one place to another. Urbanization is the development of large city, and the first city popped up around 3000BC, this meant that persons found a way to implement a system to communicate and transport them self with ease. In Egypt during this same time the first pyramid was built. Pyramids are undoubtedly the most outstanding development in Science and Technology and are still a marvel up to this very day. Now to a period that you...
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