History Of Pulse Oximetry Reno

Topics: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Pulse oximeter Pages: 15 (590 words) Published: March 1, 2015
H istory O f Pulse O xim etry
Reno Reddick

W hat is a Pulse O xim etry?
▪ Non-invasive method for
monitoring a patient's O2
saturation
▪ Also measures the
patient's heart rate
▪ instant results, rather
than drawing blood from
a patient and examining
it in a lab.

H ow is it used?
▪ a sensor is placed on a thin part
of the patient's body
– Fingertip
– Earlobe
 Light of two wavelengths is
passed through the patient to a
photo detector
 changing absorbance at each of
the wavelengths is measured,
allowing determination of the
absorbance's due to the pulsing
arterial blood alone

W ho m ade it?
▪ Made in 1935
▪ Karl Matthes (German
physician 1905–1962)
▪ the first 2-wavelength
ear O2 saturation meter
with red and green filters

W ho w as next?
▪ Glenn Allan Millikan in the
1940s
▪ 1949 Wood added a pressure
capsule to squeeze blood out
of an ear to obtain zero setting
in an effort to obtain absolute
O2 saturation value when
blood was readmitted.
▪ 1964 Shaw assembled the first
absolute reading ear oximetry
by using eight wavelengths of
light

W ho w as next continued?
▪ 1972, Takuo Aoyagi and
Michio Kishi,
bioengineers
▪ Nihon Kohden using the
ratio of red to infrared
light absorption of
pulsating components at
the measuring site
▪ first tested the device in
patients, in 1975

First com m ercialdistribution

▪ Biox was founded in 1979
▪ Introduced the first pulse
oximetry to commercial
distribution in 1981

Prior to the introduction of pulse oxim etry
▪ A patient's oxygenation could only
be determined by arterial blood gas
▪ single-point measurement that
takes several minutes for sample
collection and processing by a
laboratory
▪ damage to the brain starts within
5 minutes with brain death ensuing
within another 10–15 minutes
▪ estimated U.S. patient mortality as
a consequence of undetected
hypoxemia at 2,000 to 10,000
deaths per year

Function
▪ blood-oxygen monitor
displays the percentage of
blood that is loaded with
oxygen
▪ it measures what percentage
of hemoglobin
– the protein in blood that carries
oxygen, is loaded

▪ processor and a pair of small
LEDs facing a photodiode
through a translucent part of
the patient's body

Function Continued
▪ One LED is red, with
wavelength of 660 nm
▪ infrared with a
wavelength of 940 nm
▪ Absorption of light at
these wavelengths differs
significantly between
blood loaded with oxygen
and blood lacking oxygen

Indications
▪ a medical device that indirectly
monitors the oxygen saturation
of a patient's blood
▪ changes in blood volume in the
skin, producing a
photoplethysmogram
▪ may be incorporated into a
multipara meter patient monitor
▪ Portable, battery-operated pulse
oximetry are also available for
transport or home blood-oxygen
monitoring.

Advantages
▪ any setting where a
patient's oxygenation is
unstable
▪ intensive care, operating,
recovery, emergency and
hospital ward settings,
pilots in unpressurized
aircraft, for assessment
of any patient's
oxygenation, and
determining the
effectiveness of or need

Lim itations
▪ measures solely
hemoglobin saturation,
not ventilation and is not
a complete measure of
respiratory sufficiency
▪ Is not a substitute for
blood gases checked in a
laboratory, because it
gives no indication of
base deficit, carbon
dioxide levels, blood pH,
or bicarbonate (HCO3-)
concentration

Increasing U sage
▪ According to a report by iData
Research the U.S. pulse oximetry
monitoring market for equipment
and sensors was over 700 million
USD in 2011
▪ More than half of the major
internationally exporting medical
equipment manufacturers in
China were producers of pulse
oximetry
▪ Wii console, created the "Vitality
Sensor", which consists of a
pulse oximetry

References

▪ Pulse Oximetry . (2014).
Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wi
ki/Pulse_oximeter#Indica
tion...
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