History of Probation and Parole

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Will Epting
Professor Gary
History Of Parole In The U.S.A
Well first England adopted a modified version of the Irish system; Sir Walter Croften’s work was highly publicized in the United States. American supporters of the Irish system did not believe that adoption of the ticket of leave would ever be accepted in the U.S. The ticket of leave was the fourth stage in the Irish system, which was prisoners could be conditionally released in supervision of the police. However in Dublin they were released to civilian employees with the title of inspectors of released prisoners. They did not like this because they believed it would be un-American to place any person under the supervision of the police, and they did not believe that any other form of supervision would be effective. A letter from Crofton in 1874 stressed that that the police of Ireland were permitted to delegate competent persons in the community to act as custodians of the ticket of leave men. Crofton also suggested that the United States use a similar system. These principles were used in the Elmira Reformatory.

In 1869, a reformatory was authorized for Elmira, New York, to receive male offenders between the ages of 16 and 30.Zebulon R. Brockway first presented the idea of indeterminate sentencing and the possibilities of parole. Brockway drafted a statute that young first offenders be sent to Elmira under an indeterminate sentence not to exceed the maximum term that was already in place. The actual release date was set by the board of managers based on behavior. This is how the system started.

Indeterminate sentence is a sentence not to exceed the maximum term already in place, and the actual date of release was decided by behavior. Determinate sentence is a sentence that has a specific number of years without the possibility of parole.
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