history of philosophy

Topics: Philosophy, 2nd millennium, History of philosophy Pages: 17 (5031 words) Published: February 17, 2014
History of philosophy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see History of Philosophy (disambiguation).

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The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today? All cultures — be they prehistoric, medieval, or modern; Eastern, Western, religious or secular — have had their own unique schools of philosophy, arrived at through both inheritance and through independent discovery. Such theories have grown from different premises and approaches, examples of which include (but are not limited to) rationalism (theories arrived at through logic),empiricism (theories arrived at through observation), and even through leaps of faith, hope and inheritance (such as the supernaturalist philosophies and religions). History of philosophy seeks to catalogue and classify such development. The goal is to understand the development of philosophical ideas through time. Contents

  [hide] 
1 Western philosophy
1.1 Ancient philosophy
1.2 Medieval philosophy
1.3 Renaissance philosophy
1.4 Modern philosophy
1.5 Contemporary philosophy
2 Eastern philosophy
2.1 Babylonian philosophy
2.2 Indian philosophy
2.3 Persian philosophy
2.4 Chinese philosophy
3 Abrahamic philosophy
3.1 Jewish philosophy
3.2 Christian philosophy
3.3 Islamic philosophy
3.3.1 Religious roots
3.3.2 Transferring of Greek philosophy
3.3.3 Periods
3.3.3.1 Early Islamic philosophy
3.3.3.2 Mystical philosophy
3.3.3.3 Transcendent Theosophy
3.3.3.4 Modern era
3.4 Judeo-Islamic philosophy
4 African philosophy
5 Further reading
6 See also
7 Footnotes
8 References
9 External links
Western philosophy[edit]
Western philosophy has a long history, conventionally divided into four large eras - the Ancient, Medieval, Modern, and Contemporary. The Ancient era runs through the fall of Rome and includes the Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. The Medieval period runs until roughly the late 15th century and the Renaissance. The "Modern" is a word with more varied use, which includes everything from Post-Medieval through the specific period up to the 20th century. Contemporary philosophy encompasses the philosophical developments of the 20th century up to the present day. Ancient philosophy[edit]

Further information: Ancient philosophy

Ionia, source of early Greek philosophy, in western Asia Minor Western Philosophy is generally said to begin in the Greek cities of western Asia Minor (Ionia) with Thales of Miletus, who was active around 585 B.C. and left us the opaque dictum, "all is water." His most noted students were Anaximenes of Miletus ("all is air") and Anaximander (all is apeiron). Other thinkers and schools appeared throughout Greece over the next few centuries. Among the most important were Heraclitus ("all is fire", all is chaotic and transitory), Anaxagoras (reality is so ordered that it must be in all respects governed by mind), the Pluralists and Atomists (the world is composite of innumerable...
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