HISTORY OF TRANSLATION IN THE PHILIPPINES -------------------------------------------------
A. Spanish Language In The Philippines
Spanish was the original official language of the country for more than three centuries. It became the lingua franca of the Philippines in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Spanish began to be introduced in the archipelago after 1565 when Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi set sail from Mexico and founded the first Spanish settlement on Cebú. Translation in the Philippines started as part of a religious undertaking. The Spanish missionaries used translation as a tool to spread Christianity among the natives, thus fulfilling a utilitarian role: to conquer mind and body. The Spanish missionaries, aware that a foreign language would meet resistance as medium in teaching a new religion, studied the native languages instead and undertook the first translations from Spanish into Tagalog and other Philippine languages. 1593 - The first printed book in the Philippines came out, the Doctrina Christiana. It is a translation of prayers and Christian doctrines with which the Spanish friars spread the new religion. Other books that came out after Doctrina were translations or adaptations of Biblical stories, or explications of Christian doctrines. 1627 - The first dictionary, Vocabulario de la lengua tagala by Fray Pedro de San Buenaventura came out. It is an important tool for the Spanish missionaries to learn Tagalog. Other books of translation worth mentioning are the following: * Meditaciones cun manga mahal na pagninilay na sadia sa sanctong pag-Exercisios, by Fray Pedro de Herrera, a translation into Tagalog of the spiritual exercises of San Ignacio de Loyola from the Spanish of Fray Francisco de Salazar. * 1703 - Manga panalanging pagtatagobilin sa calolova nang tauong naghihingalo, by Gaspar Aquino de Belen, a Batangueno who worked in the printing press of the Jesuits. The book is a translation of Recomendacion del alma (1613) by Tomas de Villacastin. * 1712 - Aral na tunay na totoong pagaacay sa tauo, nang manga cabanalang gaua nang manga maloualting santos na si Barlaan ni Josaphat by Fray Antonio de Borja based on the text of San Juan Damaceno. 1863 - A Spanish decree introduced universal education, creating free public schooling in Spanish. 1891-92 - Ang mga Karampatan ng Tawo is a translation of Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen which summarized the spirit of the French Revolution. Jose Rizal’s "Amor Patrio" was translated into Tagalog as "Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa." Rizal’s "Mi Ultimo Adios" was translated by Andres Bonifacio as "Huling Pahimakas." 1890s - The Philippines had a prominent group of Spanish-speaking scholars called the Ilustrados, such as José Rizal. Spanish was also the language of the Philippine Revolution, and the 1899 Malolos Constitution effectively proclaimed it as the official language of the First Philippine Republic. Luciano de la Rosa established that Spanish was spoken by a total of 60% of the population in the early 20th century as a first, second or third language. Relay translation - where Spanish was an intervening language of a text that was originally written in other languages. The translation language (or target language) was not only Tagalog, either. Since Manila was the seat of the colonial government, most of the publications were of Tagalog texts; however, there were also translations in Ilokano, Kapampangan, Cebuano and others. Europe - came the narrative poetry and the metrical romance which became popularly known as awit and korido. The theatrical presentations komedya and moro-moro became very popular. They were believed to be either translation or adaptations of comedia de capa y espada. The translators were "Indios" in the employ of Spanish friars, and in the translation, they would add their own interpretations, thus giving...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document