History of Medicinal Drugs
People have been treating physical and mental ailments with medicines for thousands of years. More than 500 medicinal remedies were listed on clay tablets from Babylonia, from the eighteenth century B.C. In the earlier day humans believed the world was controlled by good and evil spirits. People who became sick were thought to be victims of evil forces or of a god's anger. The early remedies were medicines from natural sources. Such as plants and minerals that was found nearby. Over time and with more experiments they learned to use practical recipes for various treatments. The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the physician Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa, during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069-1046 BC).
Along with contemporary ancient Egyptian medicine, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and medical prescriptions. In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and etiology and the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.
The Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its aetiology and future development, and the chances of the patient's recovery. The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, creams and pills. Most of our...