“Mathematics - the unshaken Foundation of Sciences, and the plentiful Fountain of Advantage to human affairs.” (Barrow) Mathematics plays an integral function in our daily living since its conception, and we thank the great mathematicians for this essential tool. Mathematics has been used in various professions and academic fields. Undoubtedly, there have been many men of old that have contributed to the science of mathematics, but what really captivates our interest, are the ones who were passionate – who dedicated their lives to the study of mathematics; the originators of various fields of mathematics who displayed remarkable work. I have narrowed the list of the top three mathematicians who I have deemed worthy of being named the Greatest Mathematician based on: 1) passion, and 2) originality of outstanding work. A fitting decisive factor – passion explains how great mathematicians of old truly demonstrated their intense commitment to this science. They have dedicated their lives to practicing mathematics, down to their deaths. Historical accounts have described their deep interest in mathematical principles, persistence in solving problems and the ecstatic reaction of achievement when successful. It is their absolute love and pride for the science that we have come to respect. It is required that one follows specific mathematical principles and formulas in order to solve problems. This we take for granted, thus failing to appreciate the originality of these mathematicians. However, being original is what has shaped the history of mathematics. The past original work of great mathematicians has allowed for the development of new and/or advanced theories, formulas, and principles. Their mathematical discoveries have been used in many scientific disciplines such as physics and chemistry. It is therefore relevant that we explore the original work of these mathematical pioneers. Without a doubt, there are many great mathematicians of old; however, the...

...History of mathematics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1]
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into themathematical methods and notation of the past.
Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available are Plimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC),[2] theRhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC)[3] and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with thePythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greek μάθημα(mathema), meaning "subject of instruction".[4] Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning and mathematical rigorin proofs) and expanded the subject...

...HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
The history of mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself. Since antiquity, mathematics has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. It has evolved from simple counting, measurement and calculation, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, through the application of abstraction, imagination and logic, to the broad, complex and often abstract discipline we know today.
From the notched bones of early man to the mathematical advances brought about by settled agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the revolutionary developments of ancient Greece and its Hellenistic empire, the story of mathematics is a long and impressive one.
Prehistoric Mathematics
The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone, discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon's fibula. Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggest early attempts to quantify time.
The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either...

...Assignment 1 Miss. Dzigbodi Ama Agbodra.
A brief history of Mathematics. Ecs/13/01/0396
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past. Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available are Plimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC), the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC) and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greek μάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction". Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning and mathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of...

...Paper - I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...

...A Short History of Probability
Dr. Alan M. Polansky
Division of Statistics
Northern Illinois UniversityHistory of Probability 2
French Society in the 1650’s
! Gambling was popular
and fashionable
! Not restricted by law
! As the games became
more complicated and
the stakes became
larger there was a
need for mathematical
methods for computing
chances.History of Probability 3
Enter the Mathematicians
! A well-known gambler,
the chevalier De Mere
consulted Blaise Pascal
in Paris about a some
questions about some
games of chance.
! Pascal began to
correspond with his
friend Pierre Fermat
about these problems.History of Probability 4
Classical Probability
! The correspondence between Pascal and Fermat
is the origin of the mathematical study of
probability.
! The method they developed is now called the
classical approach to computing probabilities.
! The method: Suppose a game has
n equally
likely outcomes, of which
m outcomes
correspond to winning. Then the probability of
winning is m/n.History of Probability 5
Problems with the Classical Method
! The classical method requires a game
to be broken down into equally likely
outcomes.
! It is not always possible to do this.
! It is not always clear when possibilities are
equally likely.History of Probability 6
Experience
! Another method, known as the frequency
method had also been used for some time.
! This method consists of repeating a game...

...wRGEARJGNEJRLK HREJKH ERN GREKGERgkwergwEGJ WJRE GWKJER GWKERGKWERJG KW EJRGKJEW GEWKJG WJKEW tgkjE WGWEwejk GREJkgerkah earh jkearherakjh earkjh earkjh eraljherajl heral jhreajl heraj lheralj heralj her jlheraljh earh erah teh eat haahearh erah eath eath eta heth urhgqaehg isodghsdouihgaeuhwrg rwlnslnsdlgnetlnlsnrlgneorignerg eth yrh yr wehfb ygrwugy wrghrGrigirGW BER GBR TB AD B ADB RTAH ART HBAED TH ATEH ERTA HET AH RTH AER G ERAG ERA GE RAG REA GYA ER TRE HG R gera ha terh aerh brt h erag er yht hqrajgkjjern jkwrbn rejk bkrjw r wgj rg hgr kgh jurghurghrgr guhrg uh rg huri i hur uh o rgoh h hgeohuwfeuhwf hewouu rwoeqoiew uowefh uwrugowfeugwfe ugo wefugo uwegf ugowfe guoewfugwfe guwegufew guwfe ugefw ug feguw geufw guwefguwefgufewugewfgufgukdgdask g jksdjkwgjhwerjkt jhwjkwget kwettw t y wu u 7jae ga efv SD Gf hh eahr hreh tthr th ht he her rherhe erh rhejt rtjr jy kuu kku yu kkty j j ht gr gr gr gr RE REAHT EAHA ERT HET YH TE JTE AJ TAE J TE JA ETJ TE HE TAH ET J EATJ ET HA ET HAE TH AER AERH RE H AE HRER AH EAHLTRKE ALJHB KJB HK VFR DFF J UIJI IOH UHU IO I KIVNJK RERUUHGRE NTHENMTHE KT THT HTTJT Over the years, many have arisen to become what is commonly known as, a leader. Traits of a leader vary from being dedicated and altruistic to having courage and making sacrifices. All of those who step up to be a leader have a certain goal that they are trying to achieve. However, not all are successful in reaching what they aim for. This is what separates the true...

...
Today one of the most cherished ideologies of America is the fact that everyone is and should be created equal. With this cherished ideology bringing a sense of pride and diversity to America we must keep in mind that this cherished ideology did not always exist. Since 1865 various individuals and groups have not been able to receive and express their rights to full equal status in the United States. These different individuals and groups have seemingly fought for their rights in equality and have become pioneers in the fight for evolution for equality.
In 1865 African Americans in the United States under the 13th amendment were freed from the terrible burden of slavery. Through the 14th amendment they were given the right to citizenship and the right to equal protection. The 15th amendment gave them the right to vote regardless of their skin color race or any other type of servitude. These amendments were meant to be enforced and make a serious change in the everyday life of the average American.
With these amendments passing in 1865 they were meant to make a serious change towards the evolution of equality. These changes did not seem to happen right away and African Americans were still not being treated with equality. The average African American at this time were being denied there newly given rights every day making life extremely hard to stay...

...Name:
Date:
Graded Assignment
Final Exam Part 2
I. Map
On this world map, indicate the following features:
Amazon Rainforest
Panama Canal
The Himalayas
The Ring of Fire
The Mississippi River
The Gobi Desert
(10 points)
II. Graphic Organizer
Fill in the table below about these five major world religions. Do not fill in the shaded boxes.
(10 points)
Religion
Name at least
one Holy Text
How do you achieve
enlightment?
Describe their view about the afterlife.
Hinduism
Bhagvada Gata
Do good deeds to get good karma until you break the samsara or cycle of reincarnation and reach enlightenment
Buddhism
Believe the Four Truths are true and real, follow the Eightfold Path, meditation is one of the major steps to reach enlightenment
Judaism
Old Testament
God promised the Jews, people of Israel, paradise and those who hate the Jews and mistreat them are going to go to Hell
Christianity
New Testament
Islam
Quran
People who believe in all the five pillars and do them and do righteous deeds go to heaven while the disbelievers and those who sin are punished and go to Hell
III. Short Answer
1. Explain the role of river valleys in the development of civilizations. Name at
least two river valleys as examples. (10 points)
Rivier valleys first and foremost provided water, a basic necessity for humans. It also provided fertile soil for agriculture, which led to settlements and brought hunting and gathering to an end....

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