Short History of Asia Series Series Editor: Milton Osborne Milton Osborne has had an association with the Asian region for over 40 years as an academic, public servant and independent writer. He is the author of eight books on Asian topics, including Southeast Asia: An Introductory History, first published in 1979 and now in its eighth edition, and, most recently, The Mekong: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future, published in 2000.
First published in 2003 by Allen & Unwin Copyright © Virginia Matheson Hooker 2003 Maps by Ian Faulkner All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10 per cent of this book, whichever is the greater, to be photocopied by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act. Allen & Unwin 83 Alexander Street Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia Phone: (61 2) 8425 0100 Fax: (61 2) 9906 2218 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.allenandunwin.com National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Hooker, Virginia Matheson, 1946- . Short History of Malaysia : linking east and west. Includes index. ISBN 1 86448 955 3 1. Malaysia – History. I. Title. 959.5 Set in 11/14 pt Goudy by Midland Typesetters, Maryborough, Victoria Printed by South Wind Production, Singapore 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
For Max, Elizabeth and Jamie And in memory of John Iremonger
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Acknowledgments Preface Abbreviations Maps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Malaysia as history Peopling Malaysia Networks of power and exchange Melaka: a traditional Malay kingdom Johor and Kedah: contracts and alliances Pressures for change Responses to colonialism Transition to Independence Malaysia is born Developing new visions ix x xiii xv 1 13 33 58 78 95 131 170 209 241
Appendices Time chart Fact file Glossary Notes Bibliographic essay Bibliography Index
278 283 289 293 299 308 323
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In writing this book I have turned to a number of colleagues for advice and assistance. They have been generous with their time and knowledge in suggesting references and checking details. Particular thanks are due to Professor Geoffrey Benjamin, Professor Peter Bellwood, Dr John Funston, Dr David Bulbeck and Professor Clive Kessler. I alone bear responsibility for the narrative in the text. Other colleagues have contributed a great deal and I extend warm thanks to each of the following: Diana Carroll, Hugh Hickling, M.B. Hooker, Deborah Johnson, Amrita Malhi and Anthony Milner. The Malaysian High Commission in Canberra supplied recent data and statistics, the National Archives of Malaysia allowed me to consult their photographic collection and the staff of the National Library of Australia and of the Menzies Library, the Australian National University were most helpful. Rebecca Kaiser and Claire Murdoch of Allen & Unwin were exemplary publishing colleagues with whom it was indeed a pleasure to work. Some financial support towards realisation of this project was provided by the Australian Research Council’s Small Grants Scheme (1999) and by the Faculty of Asian Studies, the Australian National University. Their contribution is gratefully acknowledged. It remains to extend my special appreciation to the Series Editor, Milton Osborne, and John Iremonger, whose informed and intelligent comments shaped the book’s final form.
As a modern nation state, Malaysia is not very old, but some of the oldest known human remains and artefacts have...