History of Ibm

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History of IBM
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It has been suggested that Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since May 2011.

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International Business Machines, abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software (with a focus on the latter), and offers infrastructure services, hosting services, and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.[1] Ginni Rometty is the president and CEO of IBM. IBM has been well known through most of its recent history as one of the world's largest computer companies and systems integrators.[2] With over 388,000 employees worldwide, IBM is one of the largest and most profitable information technology employers in the world. IBM holds more patents than any other U.S. based technology company and has eleven research laboratories worldwide.[3] The company has scientists, engineers, consultants, and sales professionals in over 170 countries.[4] IBM employees have earned five Nobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, five National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.[5] Contents

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1 Chronology
o1.1 1880s–1924: The origin of IBM
1.1.1 Key events
o1.2 1925–1938: IBM's early growth, the Great Depression 1.2.1 Key events
o1.3 1939-1945: World War II
1.3.1 Key events
o1.4 1946–1960: Postwar recovery, rise of business computing, space exploration, the Cold War 1.4.1 Key events
o1.5 1960–1968: The System/360 era
1.5.1 Key events
o1.6 1969: Antitrust, the Unbundling of software and services 1.6.1 Key events
o1.7 1970–1974: The challenges of success
1.7.1 Key events
o1.8 1975–1992: Information revolution, rise of software and PC industries 1.8.1 Key events
o1.9 1993–present: IBM's near disaster and rebirth
1.9.1 Key events
2 Products and technologies
o2.1 BICARSA (Billing, Inventory Control, Accounts Receivable, & Sales Analysis) o2.2 Evolution of IBM's computer hardware
o2.3 Evolution of IBM's operating systems
o2.4 High-level languages
o2.5 IBM and AIX/UNIX/Linux/SCO
o2.6 Midrange systems
o2.7 Non-computer lines of business
3 Organization
o3.1 International subsidiaries growth
o3.2 Federal Systems Division
o3.3 IBM service organizations
4 See also
5 Notes and References
6 Further reading
7 External links

[edit] Chronology
[edit] 1880s–1924: The origin of IBM
Main article: Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation
YearGross income (in $m)Employees
1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
191541,672
1920142,731
1925133,698

Tabulating Machine Corporation plant in 1893.
The roots of IBM date back the 1880s, decades before the development of electronic computers. Since the 1960s or earlier, IBM has described its formation as a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company (with origins in Washington, D.C. in the 1880s), the International Time Recording Company (founded 1900 in Endicott), and the Computing Scale Corporation (founded 1901 in Dayton, Ohio, USA).[6][7] The merger was engineered by noted financier Charles Flint, and the new company was called the Computing Tabulating Recording (CTR) Corporation.[8] CTR was incorporated on June 16, 1911 in Endicott, New York, U.S.A.. The 1911 CTR stock prospectus states that four corporations were merged; the three described by IBM, above, and the Bundy Manufacturing Company (founded...
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