History of Html/Css Study Guide

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  • Topic: HTML, XHTML, XML
  • Pages : 8 (1653 words )
  • Download(s) : 61
  • Published : February 20, 2013
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Web Standards
* The formal, non-proprietary standards and other technical specifications that define and describe aspects of the World Wide Web. * Benefits
* Variety of user agents
* Same marked up content can be run by browser, smart phones etc. * Performance
* File size is smaller
* Cross browser compatibility
* Separation of content and presentation
* Build more fluid pages
* Easier to change numbers of list items
* Validation tools
* Streamline production
* Allows teams of people to work on project
* Accessibility
* What are the W3 Standards?
* HTML 5 - – HyperText Markup Language
* HTML 4.01 – HyperText Markup Language
* XML 1.0 – Extensible Markup Language
* XHTML 1.0, 1.1, and Modularization
* CSS – Cascading Style Sheets
* DOM 1 – Document Object Model Level 1
Anatomy of a Webpage
* DOCTYPE
* Xml namespace—an attribute of the html tag, helps clarify confusion around tags with the same name * <html xmlns=http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml>
* Head section
* Title tags
* Meta tags
* Content type—describes content being sent: text, images, audio etc. * Character set—interprets bits and bytes properly * Body section
* All enclosed html tags
What is the purpose of DOCTYPES?
* The purpose of !DOCTYPE tags is to let browsers and HTML validators know what type of document this is and to treat it accordingly * DOCTYPES
* Strict
* any website with strict DOCTYPEs will tell the browser to follow the HTML rules as set by the W3C * will not display deprecated items (e.g. <font> tag) * Transitional

* gives you greater flexibility and tells your browser it’s okay to use both current and deprecated tags. * Without a DOCTYPE, browser goes into Quirks mode
History of HTML
* 1990: HTML was created by Timothy Berner Lees
* W3C was a primary developer: HTML 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2, and 4.01 * Each version adds new tags and capabilities
* After HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 evolved [Extensible Hypertext Markup Language] * Reformulated HTML in XML
* Similar to HTML 4.01 but stricter syntax
* XHTML 1.1
* Defined a new MIME type for XHTML documents
* NOT COMPATIBLE WITH INTERNET EXPLORER: CAUSED PROBLEMS * “draconian error”—broken markup is treated as a fail, and web browsers will stop processing and display error message to end user * Development of XHTML2

* Unlike XHTML1
* Wasn’t backwards compatible with HTML
* Disaster
* 2004: WHATWG
* Led by Ian Hickson
* subgroup within W3C
* extending HTML to allow the creation of web applications * HTML5 and HTML 5
* WHATWG and W3C “kind of” joined back together
* Conclusion: XHTML1, HTML 4.01 and HTML5 = GOOD
MIME Types
* headers that tell the browser how to interpret page markup * HTML: text/html
* XHTML: application/xhtml+xml
Structure and Presentation
* Content is a collective term for all text, images, videos, etc. that you want to deliver to your audience * Structure consists of the mandatory parts of an HTML document plus the semantic and structured markup of its contents (tables, forms, etc.) * Presentation is the style you give the content. In most cases presentation is about the way a document looks, but it can also affect how a document sounds – not everybody uses a graphical web browser. (color, style, border, CSS) * Separate structure from presentation as much as possible. Ideally you should end up with an HTML document which contains the structure and content, and a separate CSS file which contains everything that controls presentation. * Experience has shown that separating the structure of a document from its presentational aspects reduces the cost of serving a wide range of platforms,...
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