History of Guidance

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Abstract:
An overview of the history, evolution, and current status of comprehensive school guidance programs in the United States is presented. Specific emphasis is given to the important and central roles that career development concepts and practices have within these programs in the elementary, middle, and high schools of the United States. Possible implications for international career guidance leaders and practitioners are provided.

History
Guidance counseling dates back to as early as 1907.
Jesse Davis implemented the first guidance counseling program at Center High School in Detroit, Michigan. Guidance counseling experienced a rise in popularity in the years leading up to the Great Depression as educators focused on teaching students in a progressive environment.

To understand the current status of comprehensive guidance programs in the schools of the United States and the roles that career development concepts and practices have played in shaping these programs, it is necessary to understand how these programs evolved. Thus, the first section of this paper focuses on the evolution of guidance in schools. The influence of federal legislation and social and economic change are described. The second section of the paper presents the current status of comprehensive guidance programs today. It describes the important and central roles that career development concepts and practices have within these programs in the schools of the United States. The third and final section describes what was learned from the efforts to develop and implement comprehensive guidance programs with an emphasis on career guidance in the schools of the United States that maybe of interest to leaders, policy makers, and practitioners in the international career guidance community.

The evolution of guidance in the schools of the United States as it is known today occurred at the beginning of the 1900s. It was called vocational guidance then (Parsons, 1909), and was seen as...
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