History of Education in Northern Nigeria

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HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

BY

EMMANUEL IWUH/DI: 440

Being a Term Paper Submitted to the Philosophy Department of Dominican institute of Philosophy and Theology, Samonda Ibadan. (In affiliation to the university of Ibadan) In partial Fulfilment for the Award of Bachelor degree in Philosophy.

COURSE: TEE/301

HISTORY OF NIGERIA EDUCATION

LECTURER

REV. FR. EMMANUEL OGU, OP (PhD)

MAY, 2012.

CONTENT

Introduction

1. The word “education”

2. Spread of Islam and Islamic Scholarship in Nigeria

3. Education in Northern Nigeria

1. Indigenous Education

3.2 Islamic Education

3.3 Qur’anic School

a. Makarantar Allo

b. Makarantar ‘llmi

3.4Reform in Islamic Education

4. Factors challenging Muslim Education in Nigeria

5. Western Education

5.1 The role of British administration in Northern education History

Conclusion

Introduction

Before the advent of Western civilization into Africa, education in the continent was purely indigenous. Education can be dated to be far back as old as man himself. The reason being that since antiquity, human beings have involved themselves with the process of learning up to this present day. The word ‘education’ is exclusively used for the development of human beings in the cognitive, affective, psychomotor and psycho-productive domains. The Northern region of Nigeria is not left out in this process. History has it that the educational system in the Northern part of Nigeria began with the indigenous or traditional education but has evolved in phases with great influence from the Arabs, and western education promoted by the British administration. However, The Jihad by Uthman Dan Fodio helped to revive, spread and consolidate Islamic studies and extend access to education also to women. Thus, before the arrival of the Western type of education in the 19th Century, Islamic learning had been established. The establishment of Islamic studies was majorly made possible through trade and commerce and it also helped the Muslims to spread their religion. Islamic studies had also penetrated the Western parts of Nigeria before the arrival of the Jihadists; but the Jihad strengthened the religion where it was weak. This write-up tries to explore the history of educational development in the Northern part of Nigeria. Our goal in this essay will be achieved by first; knowing what education is all about, how Islamic scholars came into Nigeria, systems of education in the North which will discuss- indigenous education, Islamic education cum Qur’anic systems of education and also the reform in Islamic education. We will then further into the western education, role of British administration in Northern education and after which the conclusion follows.

1. The word “education”

The word education is derived from two Latin words. The first one is educare (educo, educare, educavi, educatum), a first conjugation verb meaning “to bring up,” “to rear,” “to guide,” “to educate,” “to direct”. From this Latin origin, we can infer that education is the process of bringing up children by adult members of the family and the society, a process of rearing children, a process of guiding, directing and educating children.[1] On the contrary, the word ‘educere’ is interpreted to mean: to build, to lead or to develop. This perspective of the concept is mostly favoured by the humanists, who insist that the function of education is to develop the natural potentialities in the child to enable him function in the society according to his abilities, interest and needs. This perspective of the concept education is child-centred, whereas the former is society-centred or subject matter-centred.[2] Education therefore, as a concept has been subjected to multifarious definitions according to...
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