DNA typing was first used in Great Britain for law enforcement purposes in the mid- 1980s. It wasn't employed in the United States until 1987. DNA profiling has changed forensic science. DNA technology has given police and the courts a means of identifying the suspects of rapes and murders. Today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation performs the bulk of the forensic DNA typing for local and state law enforcement agencies. In criminal investigations, DNA from samples of hair, bodily fluids or skin at a crime scene is compared with those obtained from suspected suspects. DNA typing and PCR by court systems around the united states has led many places to pass laws requiring people convicted of sex offenses and other crimes to be DNA typed and included in statewide offender databases. DNA typing has had a positive return in many states. In most cases the genetic records of men in the penitentiary were matched with samples recovered from a sexual assault. It has also exonerated individuals of crimes for which they had been convicted before DNA fingerprinting was put into use. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/425/425lect15.htm
In the early part of the nineteenth century firearm and tool mark identification was recognized by numerous judicial systems in several countries all over the world. In the United States, the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory began operations at Northwestern University in late 1929 or early 1930, followed by formation of the Federal Bureau of Identification Laboratory in 1932. Additionally, many other countries also recognized the requirement to provide this type of forensic analysis and established firearm and tool mark sections either in existing laboratories or as new laboratories. Over the next few years, several laboratories were established. In 1960 the misuse of firearms in criminal cases increased. People wanted to continue research so thirty-six individuals met in Chicago, in...
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