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History of Computer

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3000 B.C. – 1450 A.D.

1. Writing and Alphabets – Communication

First development of signs corresponding to spoken sounds, instead of pictures, to express words.

Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols that expressed single syllables and consonants (the first true alphabet)

The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today.

2. Paper and Pens – input technologies.

Sumerians’ input technology was a stylus that could scratch marks in wet clay.

About 2600 B.C., the Egyptians wrote on the papyrus plant.

Around 100 A.D., the Chinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day paper-making is based.

3. Books and Libraries – output technologies (permanent storage devices)

Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest “books”

The Egyptians kept scrolls.

Around 600 B.C., the Greeks began to fold sheet of papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together.

4. The First Numbering System

Egyptian system:
The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1,000 as a lotus blossom.

The first numbering system similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. by Hindus in India who created a nine-digit numbering system.

Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed.

5. The First Calculator: The Abacus.
One of the very first information processor.

The Abacus was man’s first recorded adding machine. It was in 500 B.C. when the Abacus was invented in Babylonia, then popularized in China, the Abacus is an ancient computing device constructed of sliding beads on small wooden rods, strung on a wooden frame. You could call the Abacus as the first Calculator.


1. The first Information Explosion.

Johann Gutenberg ( Mainz, Germany; c....