Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Revenue
Subsidiary of Mondelēz International Confectionery Birmingham, United Kingdom (1824) Uxbridge, London, United Kingdom See list of Cadbury products £5,384 million (2008)
Operating income £388 million (2008) Net income Employees Parent Website £364 million (2008) 71,657 (2008) 
Kraft Foods (2010-2012) Mondelēz International (2012-present) Cadbury.co.uk 
Cadbury is a British confectionery company owned by Mondelēz International Inc. and is the industry's second-largest globally after Mars, Incorporated. With its headquarters in Uxbridge, London, England, the company operates in more than 50 countries worldwide. The company was known as Cadbury Schweppes plc from 1969–2008 until its demerger, in which its global confectionery business was separated from its US beverage unit (now called "Dr Pepper Snapple Group"). It was also a constant constituent of the FTSE 100 from the index's 1984 inception until its 2010 Kraft Foods takeover.
1824–1900: Early history
In 1824, John Cadbury began selling tea, coffee, and drinking chocolate, which he produced himself, at Bull Street in Birmingham, England. He later moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold mainly to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company they formed was called 'Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham'. The brothers opened an office in London and in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. In the 1850s the industry received a much needed boost, with the reduction in the high import taxes on cocoa, allowing chocolate to be more affordable to everybody. Due to the popularity of a new expanded product line, including the "Cadbury's Cocoa Essence", the company decided to cease trading in tea in 1873. Master confectioner Frederic Kinchelman was appointed to share his recipe and production secrets with Cadbury, which led to an assortment of chocolate covered products. Taking over the business in 1861, John Cadbury's sons Richard and George decided in 1878 that they needed new premises. Better transport access for milk that was inward shipped by canal, and cocoa that was brought in by rail from London, Southampton and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the
Cadbury Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next Stirchley Road railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year. In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would 'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'. By 1900 the estate included 313 cottages and houses set on 330 acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate; in fact, it was their Quaker beliefs that first led them to sell tea, coffee and cocoa as alternatives to alcohol.
In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars, and it became the company's best selling product by 1913. Fruit and Nut was introduced as part of the Dairy Milk line in 1928, soon followed by Whole Nut in 1933. By this point, Cadbury was the brand leader in the United Kingdom. These were accompanied by several other products: Flake (1920), Cream-filled eggs (1923), Crunchie (1929) (Crunchie was originally launched under the Fry's name but later adopted by Cadbury's) and Roses (1938). Cadbury's Milk Tray was first...