History of Arts Notes

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WEEK 1 PREHISTORIC
Hybrid figure, mammoth ivory, ca. 40,000-28,000 BCE
- To make: split dry mammoth tusk, scarpe into shape (using sharp blad) - half human, half animal= human dressed as animal for hunting purpose Bear, Chauvet Cave, ca. 30,000-28,000 BCE
- hand paintings, hand silhouettes depict animals
- took advantage of walls - eg. bump creates bear's shoulder - discovered in 1994

So-called “Venus of Willendorf,” limestone, ca. 28,000-25,000 BCE - no naturalism- stress fertility
- emphasizing reproductive features= fertility object

Spotted horses and human hands, Pech-Merle Cave, ca. 16,000-15,000 BCE - shamanism- belief in spirit world accessed through alternative states of consciousness - hand dots- can find how many artists painted in one cave

- saliva, water, blood- MIXED- applied with brush, finger, moss, chewed stick, feather

Rhinoceros, wounded man, and bison, Lascaux Cave, ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE - sense of power – pathetic, no power – powerful

Hall of the bulls, Lascaux Cave, ca. 15,000-10,000 BCE
- human never lived in Lascaux cave (no objects, remains > instead> bear bones, torches) - not optical images> instead>COMPOSITE- many details of animal

Stonehenge, ca. 2,100 BCE, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England - marked passing of time/seasons
- megalith(stone forming prehistoric monument) in circles= CROMLECHS - simple structure= post and lintel

Babylonian deed of sale, clay with cuneiform writing, ca. 1,750 BCE - refined pictogram pressed in series of wedge-shaped signs= CUNEIFORM - used for administrative accounts & poetry
- invention of writing

WEEK 2 SUMERIA&EGYPT
Remains of the “White Temple” on its ziggurat, ca. 3500-3000 BCE Uruk, Iraq - Tripartite layout
- from 3sides- can see ceremonial ascent of priest & leaders - stairs- counter clockwise around mound= indirect approach= Mesopotamian temple archietecture

Cylinder seal of priest-king feeding sacred sheep, ca. 3300
- cylindrical made of stone with hole running through centre - design carved into surface of seal- when pressed in soft clay= reverse image unfold

Statues from Abu Temple, Tell Asmar, ca. 2700-2500BCE
- maybe worshipers
- exaggerated eyes- responding to God’s awe, warding off evil

Relief Panel of Hesy-ra, ca. 2660 BC
- wooden stele nonnaturalistic
- 3000 years of same system of showing body
- same composite artificial way of showin g body
- SHOWS that it was much more important to follow tradition
- instead of realism, point is not that they cannot make naturalistic art - this convention was chosen on purpose

Imhotep, Step Pyramid and Necropolis of King Djoser, ca. 2681-2662 BCE - made for King Djoser-ruled 2630-2611- king djoser@Saqqara- was NECROPOLIS-cemetery -encircling entire complex is rectangular stone wall stretchign over mile in length and 33ft high -DOMINANT FEATURE= STEPPED PYRAMID-oriented to cardinal points of compass - zygarat- elevate temple in mesopotamia- this is not a temple but a grave - this is only image of palace meant for eternity

- there was a statue of king in center
- believed that soul could live in a staute of king
- statue enclosed in a room in center with windows and look out rest of complex so king could live eternily - monumental archeitecture

Royal Standard of Ur, ca. 2600 BCE
- bottom= charioteers pulled bu oagers. Riding over enemies
- middle= prisoners stripped of clothing & armor are escorted - top= prisoners brought to central figure- head is off canvas - banquet= top= seated for banquet, cups raised to music played by harp - PANELS represent Kingship

Prince Rahotep and Nofret, 2580 BCE
- carved from limeston- softer than diorite- painted skin tones, hair, garments, jewelry - rahotep is government official and wife is dependent of king- ritualized gesture in full frontality - rigid frontality norm for royal and elite sculptures

Pyramids of Menkaure, 2533-2515 BCE, Kafra, 2570-2544 BCE, and Khufu, 2601-2528 BCE,...
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