THE HISTORY OF AVIATION LAW AND THE CHICAGO CONVENTION
Introduction Today, decisions concerning international civil aviation are taken by the member states of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The JAR Aviation Law exam follows the Annexes and other documents of ICAO. These notes are designed to follow the JAR syllabus and are a precis of all of the reference material. The language may be difficult to follow because of the use made of the words SHALL and SHOULD. SHALL refers to Standards; SHOULD refers to recommended practices. These terms are explained in greater detail later.
1919 Aeronautical Commission Of the Paris Peace Conference This commission drafted legislation concerning International Air Navigation. The convention recognized that every state has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory, and provided for the innocent passage of civil aircraft of other contracting states over that state's territory. It was the recommendations made by this conference that established the need for an international body to regulate civil aviation and led to the formation of the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN).
1926 Ibero-American Congress, Madrid Essentially identical to the Paris convention the aim of this congress was to link Spain and the Latin American states into an organization similar to ICAN.
1928 Pan-American Convention of Commercial Aviation, Havana Specifically tailored for the needs of the states of the Western Hemisphere. The drafting of the Havana convention envisaged the western and eastern hemispheres as separate distinct entities with no need for commonality. Lindbergh completed the first non-stop solo Atlantic flight on 20 May 1927. The day that the Havana Convention was ratified. This convention weakened the status of ICAN which was eventually superseded by ICAO.
1929 Warsaw Convention Of The Unification Of Certain Rules To International Carriage By Air A convention to which 108 are parties, it is one of the most widely accepted unification of private law. It unifies legislation on:
Documentation on the carriage of passengers, baggage and cargo. The financial liability of airlines.
The question of jurisdiction, by defining the courts before which any action may be brought.
This convention was amended and simplified by the 1955 Hague Protocol. The Montreal Agreement of 1966 further amended the liability of airlines. 1-1
1944 CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL AVIATION (THE CHICAGO CONVENTION) (The text used to explain the Articles of the Chicago Convention is little changed from the original, as the meaning may be lost if simplified)
PART I - AIR NAVIGATION
Chapter I - General Principles And Application Of The Convention Article 1- Sovereignty The Contracting States recognize that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory. Article 2 Territory For the purposes of this convention the territory of a State shall be deemed to be the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection or mandate of such a State.
Article 3 - Civil and State Aircraft This convention shall be applicable only to civil aircraft, and shall not be applicable to State aircraft:
Aircraft used in military, customs and police services shall be deemed to be State aircraft
No State aircraft of a Contracting State shall fly over the territory of another State or land without authorization by special agreement or otherwise. The Contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their State aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft Article 4 - Misuse of Civil Aircraft Each Contracting State agrees not to use civil aviation for any purpose inconsistent with the aims of this convention. Chapter II - Flight Over...