-penetrate Indian Ocean (traded pepper with India)
-Direct contact w. Thailand & China and later Japan
-Used force to compel unwilling partners to trade w/them, Esp "Spice Islands (Indonesia)
-Main business of the Portuguese was to participate as shippers and traders in the existing commerce of Asia, along traditional routes. Japan:
-Japan vs China
-Joint stock company created by Jan van Linschoten as opportunities of trade with Asia.
-Carriers of Europe's Asian trade replacing the Portuguese.
land Empires: Russia china Mughal india, ottomans
Ottomans: (Turkey) most effective empire builders the world had ever known.
-3 universalist traditions: one from their stepladder ancestors, whose aim was to make the limits of their empire match those of the sky another from islam, whose caliphs legacy and title the Ottoman sultans claimed; and a third from ancient Rome, whose legacy wrenched into their own grasp by conquering much former roman imperial territory.
New Land Empires in the Americas
History 15 Notes 10/3
European Impact on the World
1.Native Americans: Eliminated, Marginated.
2.Everyone affected because of European expansion
3.Divided into Two Ages:
⁃Age of Colonials 15th-18th Century
⁃Portuguese, later Spanish and even Russian, Then Dutch, English, French
⁃Search for Luxury Goods: Porcelain, Silk,
⁃Colonialism is based on private enterprise. (Gov. paid very little)
⁃Based on taxation. (profitable)
⁃Imperialism late 18th, 19th and 20th
⁃England, France, Russia but new countries Germany, Italy, Belgium, Japan, and United States
⁃Cost money, compared to Colonials
⁃Cause of Imperialism (economically) very different. Not luxury, but search for European made goods. + search for raw goods to for Industry
⁃Justification is different. Racism
⁃Europeans felt superior because of political systems.
⁃Force is used:
⁃Asia had already trading routes, Europe wanted part of the trade
⁃Rivalry between Europeans.
⁃Colonial, and Imperialism set up an Empire to set up its own interests. Therefore always took steps to do things to help their domestic economy-
⁃Mercantilism = system in which a government intervenes to protect the national economy. - Impose Tariffs
⁃Tariff-Tax on goods coming into the country.
⁃If the tax is high enough, they would not be coming in.
4.Main trading goods: Silk, porcelain, Spices (Spice Island)
5.European cut off from Black Sea, cutting them off from slave trade. 1500s price of spice quadrupled.
6.European gaining technological Naval warfare because they used nails rather than in Middle east they glue ships together.
7.European power, never absolute.
⁃Until the 19th Century, people from Morocco were landing in Spain, France, England going around capturing Europeans to sell to the middle East.
⁃Europeans also have advantage in Land. Weapons were strong.
⁃Africa (No guns, but spears) and Asia (Guns)
⁃Europeans failed in Asia and Africa.
⁃Couldn't overcome technologies, and overcome Disease
8.19th Century Europeans develop rapid firing guns, and medicine
9.Europeans had no racial consciences.
10.India, Europeans frequently imposed segregation. Religious Segregation.
11.Europeans ashamed of bodies. Discovered some were not ashamed. Some at times, had favorable countries
⁃Secularization-As European civilization becomes less religious, National Identity, But then invent the concept of race: 19th Century, began to acknowledge they were white, Called Japanese yellow
⁃Made Europeans feel superior because of race, instead of religion.
⁃Moved into Northern Africa (war between Christians and Muslims)
⁃Try to get Gold through Sahara Desert,