History Great Fall of Europe

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Ajay Patel Chapter 13 Notes 1. The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline a. Urban Prosperity b. Economic Decline 2. Two Models of European Political Development 3. Constitutional Crisis and Settlement and In Stuart England a. James I b. Charles I i. Years of Personal Rule c. The Long Parliament and Civil War d. Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic e. Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy f. The “Glorious Revolution”

g. The Age of Walpole 4. Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV a. Years of Personal Rule b. Versailles c. King by Divine Right d. Louis’s Early Wars e. Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies i. Suppression of the Jansenists ii. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes f. Louis’s Later Wars i. The League of Augsburg and the Nine Years’ War ii. War of the Spanish Succession

g. France after Louis XIV i. John Law and the Mississippi Bubble ii. Renewed Authority of the Parlements 5. Central and Eastern Europe a. Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority b. The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction c. Prussia and the Hohenzollerns 6. Russia Enters the European Political Arena a. The Romanov Dynasty b. Peter the Great i. Developing a Navy ii. Russian Expansion in the Baltic: The Great Northern War iii. Founding St. Petersburg iv. The Case of Peter’s Son Aleksei v. Reforms of Peter the Great’s Final Years vi. Administrative Colleges vii. Table of Ranks viii. Achieving Secular Control of the Church 7. The Ottoman Empire a. Religious Toleration and Ottoman Government i. The Role of Ulama b. The End of Ottoman Expansion

1. The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline i. Seven provinces that became the United Provinces of the Netherlands emerged as a new state recognized by European powers in the 1580s ii. Netherlands won formal independence in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) iii. Warfare forged identity of the Nlands: independence wars from Spain, naval wars with England, defense against the armies of Louis XIV iv. William III- stadtholder of Holland, the most important of the nlands, led the entire European coalition against France assuming the English throne with his wife Mary, daughter of James II v. other major nations pursued paths toward strong central gov’t (monarchies in France, parliament in England). Nlands were formally a republic, States General-central gov’t met in the Hague, exercised authority through negotiations with the provinces vi. Holland dominated the States General, the Dutch distrusted monarchy ambitions of the House of Orange and William III vii. When confronted with military challenges Dutch let the House of Orange take control viii. Extensive religious toleration, Calvinist was the official religion ix. Became haven for Jews driven out from spain, and all religions lived peacefully in Netherlands

b. Urban Prosperity i. Amazing economic prosperity-high standard of living ii. Econ based on urbanization, transformed agriculture, trade and overseas commercial empire iii. Urbanization: more ppl lived in cities than in any other part of Europe, made possible key transformations in Dutch farming, diversified into cultivation of cash products-tulips, supplied textiles iv. Advanced financial system: Amsterdam was financial capitol-shares traded easily in the market v. Commercial empire: Dutch East Indies Company (1602) displaced Portuguese dominance in the spice trade c. Economic Decline i. After death of William III (1702), local provinces prevented emergence of strong stadtholder- political leadership vanished ii. Naval supremacy steadily passed to British-lost tech superiority in shipbuilding, fishing industry declined iii. British used own vessels in Baltic trade with Russia, no need for Dutch ships iv. Countries traded directly with each other without Dutch ships v. Stagnation in domestic industries-disunity of provinces hastened decline vi. Continued financial dominance in banking saved the Nlands from being completely insignificant-France and England had...
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