The History of Germany Since 1945.

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Following the defeat of Germany in World War II, the heads of government of three of the victorious nations: the Soviet Union, Britain and the United States, held a conference to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany. This was done through the Potsdam Conference, which took place in July of 1945: 9 weeks after Germany's unconditional surrender. Germany was then divided into 4 occupational zones between France, Britain, the United States and the Soviet; Berlin, which stood on Soviet grounds, was also divided into four sectors with the Western zone later becoming West Berlin and the Soviet's zone becoming East Berlin; East Germany's capital. Together these countries formed The Allied Control Council.

"A key term in the occupier's agenda was denazification: an allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime," ("Germany", Wikipedia).

They were successful in this as all symbols of the Nazi regime were banned and even a new Germany flag was created. Another term agreed to at Potsdam was the idea of decentralization. Despite the divisions, "Germany was to be treated as a unified unit with some central administrative departments," ("Germany", Wikipedia). However these plans collapsed in 1948, with the beginning of the Cold War, which in turn solidified the boundaries between the Soviet zone in the East and the United States, French and Britain's zone is the West. At that point the West was worried about their economical situation, but the American Marshall Plan aid was extended to Western Germany and a currency reform introducing the Deutsche Mark ended the concern by putting a stop to the inflation. The Soviets, however, did not agree to the currency reform and later withdrew from the four-power governing bodies. Their dissatisfaction with the idea was seen through the Berlin Blockade, implemented in June of 1948, which blocked all ground transport routes between West Germany and West Berlin, lasting 10 months.

"In 1949, shortly after the Western powers permitted their zones to unite and restore parliamentary democracy in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Soviets installed a puppet regime of German Communist in the East, creating the German Democratic Republic," ("Germany", Wikipedia).

In West Germany, any chance at reunification was unforeseeable especially with Konrad Adenauer as the new Chancellor from 1949 to 1963. As head of the conservative Christian Democratic Party, Adenauer was deeply suspicious of the East's intentions and wanted to maintain and enforce ties with the United States and Western Europe. Firstly, he led the Federal Republic into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1955, which integrated them with Western Europe in the development of their economic community.

"The three Western Allies retained occupation powers in Berlin and certain responsibilities for Germany as a whole. Under the new arrangements, the Allies stationed troops within West Germany for NATO defense, pursuant to stationing and status-of-forces agreements. With the exception of 45,000 French troops, Allied forces were under NATO's joint defense command," ("Germany", Wikipedia).

In addition, he also refused to recognize East Germany's Democratic Republic or uphold diplomatic relations with any other country that did and he exploited cold war tensions in order to obtain sovereignty for his country.

"The Adenauer era (1949-63) was followed by a brief period under Ludwig Erhard (1963-66) who, in turn, was replaced by Kurt Georg Kiesinger (1966-69). All governments between 1949 and 1966 were formed by the united caucus of the Christian-Democratic Union (CDU) and Christian Social Union (CSU), either alone or in coalition with the smaller Free Democratic Party (FDP)." ("Germany", Wikipedia).

Also important to note, while Kiesinger was in power, he formed a Grand Coalition between the CDU and the Social Democratic Party....
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