Unit 1: Canada and WW1
Militarism: A nation’s policy of enlisting, training, equipping, and maintaining armed forces ready for war. Alliances: A formal agreement of support and cooperation, usually economic or military terms. Imperialism: The building of empires taking over overseas territories. Nationalism: A strong attachment to one’s nation.
Triple Entente: France, Russia, Britain (Canada)
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (Central Power) “No Man’s Land”: Narrow, muddy, treeless stretch of land, filled with shell holes, that separated German and Allied trenches; where most of the fighting took place and considered very dangerous since it offered little or no protection for soldiers. Chlorine gas: Gaseous chlorine, a chemical weapon that acts as a choking agent, searing the lining of the respiratory tract. Conscription: Forced participation in military service (the draft). Propaganda: A specific type of message presentation aimed of serving an agenda. Important Events
Schlieffen Plan: was the German plan of attack designed to defeat France quickly and then turn on Russia. It was intended to avoid a war on two fronts. Battle of the Somme:
• The battle of the Somme, fought in France from July to November 1916, was one of Italy’s disasters. The Central Powers had suffered more casualties, and General Haig claimed victory, even though the Allies had gained only 8 km of mud. This was the first time tanks were used by Britains, but they got stuck on mud. Second Battle of Ypres:
• Fought in Belgium in April 1915, was the first time Canadians battled as a Canadian unit. French and Canadian troops experienced gas warfare for the first time. Gas warfare was illegal but the Germans used it for war. To survive, soldiers peed on a cloth and used it as a gas mask. British reinforcements helped prevent further German advances. Vimy Ridge:
• Vimy Ridge was taken place in France in April 1917. This made Canada a nation. The battle of Vimy Ridge was an important turning point for Canada because it brought both world recognition and a strong sense of patriotism. Canadians took more guns, ground and German prisoners. Passchendale:
• Took place at Belgium during the late October and early November 1917. General Haig launched a new assault with a massive artillery bombardment that destroyed the drainage system and left massive shell holes across the fields. General Arthur Currie brought an increasingly independent Canadian point of view to the British war effort. Conscription:
• Many Canadians supported conscription because they had family members fighting overseas. Farmers were against it because they needed men to work on farms and conscription would take these men away. The French Canadians, however, took the blame. French Canadians were against conscription because Robert Borden said there would be no conscription , felt no realities to England or France, Training manuals were written in English only, and no Catholic priests (only Protestant ministers). • On May 18, 1917 Borden announced a new policy of conscription. • Military Service Bill was passed a month later, making military service compulsory for all men between the ages of 20 and 45 years. Half of all Canadians opposed Borden’s bill. French Canadians rioted in Montreal. When first group of men were called many tried to be exempt and others disappeared. ❖ French Canadians didn’t want to fight
❖ Felt little connection to France and even less to England ❖ Didn’t like English Imperialism
❖ Didn’t speak English ; army spoke only English
❖ French couples married young
❖ There was rioting and looting of businesses
❖ Divided Canada
• Prime Minister Robert Borden led Canada through World War 1, eventually committing 500,000 troops to the war effort. Robert Borden formed a Union Government of Liberals and Conservatives to implement conscription, but the conscription...