June 15, 2012
History, Approaches, and the Functions, Roles and Skills of a Manager I. History
a. Pre-scientific Management
Ancient Times: Although management problems and solutions occurred in the ancient times, the emergence of ‘management’ as an independent field of study is fairly recent (right after the Industrial Revolution)
Middle Ages: Businesses were family-run. A family’s surname (alas, Fisher, Farmer, Taylor, etc.) describes the nature of its craft.
The head of the family is the manager as well as the owner.
The base of operations was basically the family’s domicile, i.e. home
Industrial Revolution – as worldwide population grew, the demand for products and services became even higher. Industries then which operated mainly in the house had to move to a larger base of operations.
15th century – further expansion equals the need for more capital. The solution was the pooling of the resources of the owners (corporations). This pool of resources needed a manager.
b. Scientific Management
Taylor’s observation: employees work by themselves and are, hence, inefficient. Essence of Scientific Management
1. the need for planning
2. selection & training
3. scientific method in business
4. division of work (later called specialization)
What is management?
Management depends on the perspective of the person attempting a definition. An economist might classify management as a resource. In a sociologist’s view, it might be class, an elitist task.9 Formal definition of management:
is the process for coordinating and integrating the use of resources (human, financial, physical, information) to accomplish organizational purpose through people, via techniques and information in an organized structure.
A related concept is the notion of ‘organization’.
Elements of an Organization (led by managers)
1. People – the performers of task
2. Techniques – the...