On-the-job training (OJT) is a hands-on method for training employees. It is usually performed by someone who knows how to complete a task, who then shows another person how to perform the same task. In colonial times, this form of training was called apprenticeship. Ben Franklin is a good example of an apprentice, who learned how to become a printer from a master to whom he was indentured as he learned the necessary skills.
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Earliest Forms of Job Training
•The Chinese developed a philosophy in the early fifth century B.C. that allowed students to actively participate in their own learning. Similar to our current case-study method, trainees reviewed a parable or example. The group then discussed its meaning. Around the third century B.C., Socrates developed what we have come to call the Socratic method. Using this form of job training, instructors pose questions to the group and encourage them to discover the answers.
Middle Ages to 19th Century
•Around the 12th century, scholasticism rose to popularity. It is defined as a form of experiential learning or learner-based instruction in which information is presented and learners use several methods to discuss and interpret evidence. In the 17th century, John Locke had a great influence on job training and education. He stated that students learn best when they learn simple ideas and then slowly develop these concepts into more complex ones. Our current classroom training model is based largely on Locke's philosophies.
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The 20th Century
•Great strides were made in job training during the 20th century. Adult learning theory, led by Malcolm Knowles, proved that adults learned differently than children. Prior to Knowles's...