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* Crisis in the Later Middle Ages, 1300-1450
* CLIMATE CHANGE
* 1300-1450: “Little Ice Age”
* Cold weather and storms
* Poor harvests
* 1315-1322: “The Great Famine”
Little Ice Age
Too much rain, storms, cold
Scarcity and famine
* People’s immune systems were low; vulnerable to disease AND
* Workers underfed, less productive… higher grain prices * BLACK DEATH
* 1347: Ships bring plague to Italy
* Symptoms:
* Bleeding, vomiting, black sores, buboes
* Kills 1/3 – 1/2 population of Europe
* HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR
* 1337–1453: war between France and England
* Joan of Arc helps the French win
* GREAT SCHISM
* 1378-1417: Two popes
* Pope in Rome
* Pope in Avignon, France
* Another (THIRD!) pope is elected, but the other two won’t leave * Meetings eventually resolve the issue = back to one pope * PEASANT REVOLTS
* 14th century
* Peasants revolt throughout Europe
* -------------------------------------------------
Often merge with urban discontent
* MEDIEVAL CITIES
* RISE OF CITIES AND TOWNS
Made possible by…?
Rise in population
Increased agricultural output
Peace and political stability
Lays the foundation for…?
An urban, industrial Europe
* CITY LIFE
* Towns grow from fortifications, cathedrals, Roman sites * New class = artisans and merchants
* Establishment of guilds
* Quality, regulation, training, conduct, provisions
* Revival of trade
* Business developments
* Infrastructure, companies and investors
* Sumptuary laws
* COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION
Changes in business procedure
+
Growth in trade
=
Transformation of economy
Beginning of modern capitalism
Rural/isolated to urban/specialized economy
* FOUNDING OF UNIVERSITIES
* Origins: Monastic and cathedral schools
* Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Cambridge
* No women or Jews allowed
* Curriculum
* Liberal Arts
* Revival of Classical sources
* Scholasticism
* Method of thinking/reasoning two sides of an issue with the goal of finding one rational answer * Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologiae
Article 3: Is there a God?
It seems that there is no God.
Objection 1: If one of a pair of opposites were infinite, it would totally destroy the other. But by the name ‘God’ one means a certain infinite good. Therefore, if there were a God, there would be no evil. But there is evil in the world. Therefore, there is no God. Objection 2: What can be accomplished with fewer principles is not done through more principles. But it seems that everything that happens in the world could have been accomplished through other principles, even if there were no God; for things that are natural are traced back to nature as a principle, whereas things that are purposeful are traced back to human reason or will as a principle. Therefore, there is no need to claim that there is a God. But contrary to this: Exodus 1:14 says under the personage of God, “I am Who am.” I respond: There are five ways to prove that there is a God. The first and clearest way is in looking at movement or change: It is certain, and obvious to the senses, that in this world some things are moved… If, then, that by which something is moved is itself moved, then it, too, must be moved by another, and that other by still another. But this does not go on to infinity. For if it did, then there would not be any first mover and, as a result, none of the others would effect movement, either. For secondary movers effect movement only because they are being moved by a first mover, just as a stick does not effect movement except because it is being moved by a hand. Therefore, one has to arrive at some first mover that is not being moved by anything. And this is what everyone takes to be a God. * CATHEDRALS

* Romanesque
* Rounded arches...
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