History

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  • Topic: Centuries, 1st millennium, Rome
  • Pages : 27 (5781 words )
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  • Published : April 7, 2013
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BCE= Before common era (same as BC)
CE= Common Era (Same as AD)
Circa = around the time of, approximately – not exact date( abbreviated “ca” or “c”)

Chapter 1

* 4mil ya to 3500 BCE
* Hominids
* australopithecus 4mil ya
* Homo Erectus 1.5 mil ya
Homo Sapiens 200 thousand ya
* Paleolithic – Hunter/Gatherer
* Paleolithic – “old stone age” – first hominids to 12,000 years ago; Hunters and Gatherers; Nomadic; No private property; Egalitarian- equal society; Gender-based labor; Had burials and “art” * Neolithic- “New Stone Age” – 12,000-6,000 years ago ; early permanent settlements; simple agriculture; domesticated animals - cows, goats, pigs; population increase; specialized crafts * Urban Life- (6,000 BCE) Larger, more complex than villages or towns; professions emerged; larger regions of influence; Began Civilizations in Tigris/Euphrates River valley (Irag) 4000-3500 BCE Chapter 2

* Mesopotamia (3000-550 BCE)
* The “Land between two rivers”
* Sumer (southern Iraq, near Persian Gulf)
* City of Ur – Elaborate architecture, palaces, temples, defensive walls, Ziggurats * 4000 BCE – First World Cities- in Sumer
* 3000 BCE – pop. 100,000 – kings held absolute power/ authority * 2500 BCE – City-states emerge
* 2350 BCE – Mesopotamian empires first emerge
* Early Writing (starts 3500 BCE)
* Pictographic (Mesopotamia ca. 3500 BCE)
* Cuneiform (Mesopotamia- Sumer- ca. 2900 BCE)
* Alphabetic (Phoenicians, ca. 1500 BCE)
* Judaism ca. 2000- 1800
* Abraham- one of first followers of one god Monotheism (prophet- spread throughout Mediterranean and Egypt) * Driven out of Egypt by ca. 1300
* Ten commandments
* Kingdom of Israel – 1029 BCE
* Jerusalem- capital of Jews 950 BCE
Hittite Empire, ca 1450 BCE- chariot

Chapter 3

Nile- flows south to north, source is Lake Victoria
Early Egypt- Nile Valley 3000-2000 BCE
* Cataracts- area with rapids
Periods of Ancient Egypt
* Archaic – 3100 to 2660 BCE: platform mounds
* Old Kingdom - 2660 to 2160 BCE: Great pyramids
* Middle Kingdom – 2040 to 1640 BCE: period of stability * New Kingdom – 1550 to 1070 BCE: Elaborate monuments and palaces Bantu Migrations – 2000 BCE to 1000 CE

Chapter 4

Harrapan Society
* 3000 BCE to 1900 BCE
* Today called Dravidian people
* Indus River Valley
* Two large Urban centers – Harrapa and Mohenjodaro
* Expansive trade routes
* Distinct class structure
* Decline due to environmental causes
Aryan Societies (Indo-Europeans)
* Came into being as Harrappans faded ( ca. 1900 BCE )
* Came from north into India
* Herding economy
* Aryans clashed with Drividian societies
* Brought Vedic “religion”
* Imposed caste system in India
Caste System
* Varna – Aryan/Sanskirt word for “color”
* Brahmins – priests
* Kshatriyas – warriors and aristocrats
* Vaishyas – cultivators, artisans, merchants “middle class” * Shudras – landless peasant serfs
* Untouchables – lowest caste
Jati – subgroups within castes
Vetic Religion – Numerous Gods
Upanishads – 800 to 400 BCE
Reincarnation – born into a different caste depending on how you live your life, to reinforce the caste system

Chapter 7

Achaemenid Empire (558 to 330 BCE)
* Pastoral, limited agriculture
* Organized in clans, paid tribute to Mesopotamians
* Had military skills – horses and archery
* Rose to power in 558 BCE taking over Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Babylonia, Egypt under King Cyrus then King Darius * Capitol City – Persepolis (Iran)

Accomplishments of Achaemenids
* Standardization of taxes
* Established coins (which facilitated trade throughout empire) * Laws brought under single standard based on local laws
* Established road system – Persian Royal Road, 1,600 miles long * Postal system
* Qanat – underground irrigation canals for agriculture...
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