GAT ANDRES BONIFACIO
SUPREMO OF KATIPUNAN
The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by Filipino anti-Spanish people in Manila in 1892, which was aimed primarily to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7, when Filipino writer José Rizal was sentenced to banished to Dapitan. Initially, Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of Philippine Revolution. The word "katipunan" (literally means association) came from the root word "tipon", an indigenous Tagalog word, meaning: "society" or "gather together". Its official revolutionary name is Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan (English: Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation, Spanish: Suprema y venerable asociación de los hijos del pueblo). Katipunan is also known by its acronym, K.K.K.. Being a secret organization, its members are subjected to utmost secrecy and are expected to abide with the rules established by the society. Aspirant applicants were given standard initiation rites to become members of the society. At first, Katipunan was only open for male Filipinos; not later then, women were accepted in the society. The Katipunan has its own publication, Ang Kalayaan (The Liberty) that had its first and last print on March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and Philippine literature were expanded by its some prominent members. In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for its full-pledged support for the Katipunan in exchange of promising Rizal's liberty from detainment by rescuing him. On May 1896, a delegation was sent to the Emperor of Japan to solicit funds and military arms. Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro Patiño confessed Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the THE KATIPUNAN FLAG 1892-1898
Influence of the
La Liga Filipina and Propaganda Movement
A late 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda Movement: José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce.
The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were, effectively, successor organizations of La Liga Filipina, founded by José Rizal, as part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in the Philippines. Katipunan founders Andrés Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, Darilyo Valino, Rulfo Guia, Dano Belica, Tiburcio Liamson, and Gabrino Manzanero were all members of La Liga and were influenced by the nationalistic ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain.
Marcelo H. del Pilar, another leader of the Propaganda Movement in Spain, also influenced the formation of the Katipunan and historians believe he had a direct hand in its organization because of his role in the Propaganda Movement and his eminent position in Philippine Masonry. Most of the founders of the Katipunan were free masons. The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. It also had an order of rank, similar to that of free masonry. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retaña and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies, and the Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end, even if each took a different road to it."
Founding of the Katipunan
Captured Katipunan members (also known as Katipuneros), who were also members of La Liga, revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. One group insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful...