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1. See answer to #17 below – it is close
2. Compare and contrast Hinduism to religions such as Judaism, Christianity or Islam. In what ways would Hinduism be unique? See notes and other study guides
3. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system?( pg 77) The advantages of the caste system that the Aryans did not have a large political structure in place. This social hierarchy served to maintain order and stability that states and other political structures guaranteed in other societies such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China. The disadvantages were that someone’s place in society was determined by hereditary distinctions (example – color of your skin) as well as their occupations (Jati). The caste system was not rigid and offered some social mobility upward (ability for someone or members of jati to move to a higher caste) but it was not easy. Most time it involved the whole Jati moving to another area or taking on a new line of work. (pg 78). The overall disadvantage appears to be that someone was born into a varna or jati (by skin color or the Jati that their parents belonged to) and it was difficult to change their position without extreme effort. 4. Compare and contrast the political, religious, and social characteristics of the Harappan society to those of Mesopotamia and Egypt. See notes and other study guides

5. In what ways is Hinduism a combination of Aryan and Dravidian concepts? A) professed ethics and moral behavior & judgment of humans 1) (pg80)- Aryan- “Rig Veda” work- stated that the god Varuna judged humans so those who were honest and good would enter Aryan heaven known as “World of Fathers” and evil people would go to hell- “House of Clay” 2) (pg 81) Upanshad work ( Brhadaranyaka Upanshia)- doctrine of Karma- those who lived virtuous lives and fulfilled duties could expect rebirth into higher caste or no more rebirths Applicable to Hinduism- formed concept of a) dharma- obedience to religious and moral laws and b) Mahabharata- - god Vishnu- intervened for virtuous people

B) Belief in reincarnation ( rebirth of souls)
1) Dravidian people ( pg 80) had the belief that human souls took on new physical forms after the death of their bodily hosts- souls came back (rebirthed) as plants, animals or new born humans. 2) Upanishad work ( pg 81) – described the doctrin of samsara – which held upon death- individual souls would temporarily go the “world of the fathers” and return to earth as new incarnations Applicable to Hinduism- see Bhagavad Gita- “song of the lord” work- thru the story of Mahabharata- preaches that the soul does not die with the human body In what ways is Hinduism not influenced by Aryan and Dravidian concepts? ( pg 184)

A) Aryan & Dravidian- Upanishads work- taught to escape the cycle of reincarnation, an individual should do the following: 1) Renounce all earthly pleasures ( asceticism)
2) Detachment from the world
B) Hinduism (Bhagavad Gita work)- taught salvation(escape from reincarnation) achieved by: 1) Meeting your caste responsibilities
2) Participating actively in the world
3) Did not believe in renouncing all earthly pleasures- had the kama belief- which allowed for enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure. 6.How are the Upanishads different from the Vedas? ( pg 81)

The Upanishads are different from the Vedas in the following ways: 1) Vedas are the foundation of the religion- Hinduism
2) Upanishads are dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues and questions that they raised They called for high ethical standards and behavior as well as respect for all living things ( because of re-incarnations) What might these differences tell us about the evolution of Indian religious beliefs?(pg 81) The ritualistic sacrifices of animals during the early Vedic time was time...
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