Christianity provided people with absolute truths and powers over others. European cultural superiority, Eurocentric. Different was evil. Christianity worked for centuries to reassure followers that values and practices were a right way to worship god. Wasn’t just religion, gave birth to social and political institutions that were validated by Christian belief. Aristocracy, bourbers and peasants. Women accused of withches: margins of society, misfits, gossip, trouble makers, strong willed women, women’s occupation. Led to rise of strong centralized royal governments, use of torture, judicial apparatus allowed for systematic way of accusations, rate of religion/reformation taking place. Universe works with fixed immutable laws not work of diety, god is taken out of nature, nature is engraved into all individuals ruled by mathematical laws. Quality of material of which objects were made, everything in universe eventually settled in a hierarchy of material, nobler than others (Crystalline spheres). House of Commons vs Charles: Politics, sovereignty and parliaments role in government; economics taxes have hurt English middle class; change in social order, aristocracy of king to middle class of burgues and merchants; religion; Anglican catholic & protestant.
Thomas Hobbes: Treatise on the Origins of Political power lays out evidence that governments are the creation of men, not gods. Tries to overthrow the legitimation of the king. Separate religion and right to rule. Passion, envy, greed and desire for good life. Man motivated by nature. All men are created equal in a state of nature, each individual had equal right to the bounty of nature but sovereignty goes to the king. Comes out of human need, protection, state of nature. Locke thought that people should have limited power and that one person should not rule over everything. English bill of rights 1689: parliament declared to be supreme legislative, monarchy denied to levy taxes, maintain an army or expand...
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