History 102

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History revealed that Frederick Jackson Turner’s image of the west as the home of democratic spirit and buffalo bill’s depiction of it as the battlefield of white man’s victory were incomplete.The American west exerted lasting influence on the complex mix of people there. Living mostly in small groups, Indians-the original inhabitants- hunted, farmed and depended on delicate resources such as buffalo herds and salmon runs. When they came into contact with commerce-minded European-americans, their resistance to the market economy, diseases, and violence and whites brought into the west failed. Mexcians, Chinese, African Americans, and anglos discovered a reciprocal relationship between human activities and the environment. Miners timber cutters, farmers, and builders extracted raw materials for eastern factories, used irrigation and machines to yield agricultural abundance, filled pastures w cattle and sheep to environment exerted power through climate, insects and parasites, and other hazards. The wests settlers employed violence and greed that sustained discrimination within a multiracial society, left many farmers feeling cheated, provoked contests over water and pastures, & sacrificed environmental balance for market profits. The regions raw, materials and agricultural products raised living standards and hastened industrial progress, but not without costs. Mechanization and inventions thrust the US into vanguard of industrial nations and altered daily life. By the early 20th century, American industrial output surpasses that of Great Britain, France, Germany combined. By 1900, factories, stores, and banks converted America from a debtor, agricultural nation into an industrial financial and exporting power. Industrial expansion proved unstoppable bc so many people were benefiting from it. The waves of new comers pouring into the nations cities were increasingly furnishing workers and consumers for Americas expanding productive capacity.The economics activities of native peoples:increasingly eroded in 1850 by natural causes or increase in interaction or encroachment by whites economies were devastated by the declining buffalo herd due to to drought, Diseases by white owned livestock, excessive native American hunting&trade. The transformation of native cultures: once on reservations Indians dependency on whites for trade goods such as clothing, guns, horses, and food made it easier for whites to control Indians affairs. The 1887 dawnes severalty act dissolved community-owned Indian land, granting it instead to qualifying individual Indian families. Life on the natural resources frontier; mining for precious metals. Cutting tress for lumbar, and drilling for oil drew thou. Of ppl to the west seeking fortune n better life. Irrigation and transportation; gov’t policies aid the dev. Of the west through railroad construction and thru the Newlands Reclamation Act 1902.nds funds financed irrigation projects which facilitated agriculture and economic development.Farming the plains:what eased the hardships of the west the railroads postal service dev’ n new technology n mechanization, creation of social clubs, churches eased isolation.The ranching frontier: over grazing n the land which destroyed grass supplies that fed plains herds. Business’ took over cattle industry n used scientific methods for breeding and feeding to eliminate dependency on grass and grazing lands.Technology & the triumph of industrialization; new inventions and technological advances made production of goods n services faster n cheaper, n fueled the rise of mass production n consumption. From small companies to large business’ Thomas Edison electricity invention, Henry Ford European engine production of mass amounts of identical eventually affordable cars. (in early 20th century) Duke produced Cigarettes, and du Pont revolutionized industry. Mechanization & the changing status of labor: innovation created new jobs laborsaving machiones producing more in less...
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