Historical timeline of nursing theory development
The evolution of nursing as a profession throughout time has proven to be both an art and science. Different events throughout history have shaped nursing into its current organization. Nursing in the future is improving, striving for better care and service to the community in whole. The objective of this paper is to discuss the historic development of nursing, the relationship of nursing to the profession, and the relationship of nursing science to other disciplines such as religion, education, and psychology. Florence Nightingale, considered the founder of nursing, corner stoned the impact of nursing as an organized discipline in 1853 (Finklelman, 2013). She posed a systematic approach to nursing, manipulating the internal and external environment to implement benefit the health and facilitates the body’s restorative process (Finklelman, 2013). Moving into the 1950s, Hildegard Peplau uncovered the model that focused on interpersonal relations (Finklelman, 2013). The interpersonal relationship revolves around the patient, who has identified problems in which there is a need for nursing care, and the professional nurse, which the care is sought from (Peplau, 1952). Virginia Henderson’s basic needs model that identified 14 basic needs of the whole person. The focus is on developmental, spiritual, physciological, psychological, and socio-cultural needs. To improve health conditions, the nurse, and patient work together by identifying those needs and generating a plan of care to meet the identified needs. Ida Jean Orlandos theory’s foundation is nursing as a discipline. The patient is an individual with a need. When that need is met, well-being is enhanced therefore diminishing the stressors.
Faye G. Abdellah’s 1960s theory emphasizes delivering nursing care to the whole person. The whole person is evaluated by the physical,...