University of Phoenix
CJA 463/Criminal Justice Policy Analysis
Historical Policy Comparison
In the past fifty years, the American system of criminal justice has undergone a number of critical changes involving policing, the courts and corrections. Landmark Supreme Court rulings, such as Miranda v. Arizona, and Mapp v. Ohio have shaped the way that law enforcement, as well as our courts, deal with individuals accused of committing crimes (Marion and Oliver, 2006). The following information will focus on the evolution of policing, our courts, and corrections system into agencies, which reflect the changing and diverse needs of our current population of primary importance, is the need for communication and cooperation between law enforcement and criminal justice agencies throughout our country. It is imperative that policing, courts, and corrections continue to collaborate towards the goals of crime prevention, protecting the public, and ensuring that the law is applied equally and fairly to all citizens. Policing
The history of policing is important to provide a more accurate picture of where we have been and where we should go in terms of ensuring a safe society (Marion & Oliver, 2006). During the Reform Ara, an organized movement for change in policing came for police professionalism and to free policing from the control of politicians and eliminate politics from policing and to hire qualified leaders and officers (Marion & Oliver, 2006). Two-way radios, telephones and 911 emergency system assisted police to become more professional; however, some communities decreased foot patrols and reliance on patrol cars permitted quicker responses to calls for help. Although police departments inceased in size, technology and equipment, crime continued to increase. In the Community Ara, police and community relations were a problem; therefore, many grants were focused on implementing the tenents of police and community relations (Marion & Oliver, 2006). In the 1970’s team policing, and neighborhood watch programs were implemented along with police training regarding various cultures, and special groups such as juveniles, elderly and handicapped (Marion & Oliver, 2006). Policing shifted from traditional and reactive to community policing with a number of different strategies that promotes working to solve problems before crimes occur with the community and getting the police on the street to interact with the people. Homeland Security Era brought change to American soil after the September llth attacks. The creation of the Office of Homeland Security and its subsequent passage as a cabinet-level department as well as the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act are both inclinations that the national government is moving in this direction (Marion & Oliver, 2006). Many grants that focused on local agencies now focus on homeland security; therefore, the budget was slashed for the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, while the Department of Homeland Security increased. In the United States, there are over 18,000 law enforcement agencies, all with different jurisdictions, responsibilities and powers; therefore, no one agency has unlimited power (Marion & Oliver, 2006). In most agencies, public policy establishes the operating standard to assist employees in the exercise of discretion in areas not covered by mandatory requirements and prohibitions (Huskey, 2010). The police have various issues in the areas of discretion and administrative policy and judicial decisions have significant influence on police operations (Huskey, 2010). Courts
The purpose of the judiciary (courts) is to interpret laws and make rulings on legal questions. Additionally, it determines if laws passed by legislatures, on a national, state, or local level, violate the U.S. Constitution (Johnson, 1981, p. one). However, the procedures used are manufactured through use of the...