1. Describe historical perception of and faith in science. Throughout the development of society, technology has been perceived as a way to make people’s lives easier. Before the degradation that scientists had during the 1960’s there was a certain faith that people put into science. The statement “ trust me I am a scientist” was frequently used, there was almost a blind and unquestionable faith in science. The “supersonics” was an example of how society perceived technology and science in general. What people want from science is convenience. There has been such a high expectation of making “comfort” convenient that people have lost sight of true minimum but valuable advances and discoveries or advancements and a gap between scientist and general public have with scientist. Because of the “ignorance” there is big disappointment of the advancements. By definition, we all poses specialized knowledge but scientists have been charged with the task off advancing and making the changes want to see.
2. What is positivism and how is it reflected in scientific ideology? Positivism says only the things that I see matter, only measurable things are taken in account for knowledge bearing. It leaves an important part of cognition of human life, like emotion for example. Scientists have the ideology that real science must be based on experience, but there are things like belief, emotion and several other that cannot be measured. Also ethics is out of the “scope” of science because judgments or ultimate decisions are made out of values instead of facts.
3. Contrast metaethical absolutism versus metaethical relativism. How do they differ in their views on moral knowledge? •Metaethical Absolutism: We can know right/wrong
–Does not say things like “Abortion is always right/wrong” – these are judgments, not statements about our capacity to know right and wrong. •Metaethical Relativism: We cannot know right/wrong. No knowledge can be obtained –“You believe X and I believe Y. Who is to say who is right or wrong?”
4. What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative utilitarianism? Provide an example. Quantitative: all types of pleasure are equal.--> number of utility points for each individual action Qualitative: All pleasures are not equal and have different utility value points. Working out: qualitative assertive
Eating junk food: quantitatively assertive
5. Explain the difference between radical act and strict rule utilitarianism. Strict rule utilitarianism proposes a more central role for rules that was thought to rescue the theory from some of its more devastating criticisms, particularly problems to do with justice and promise keeping. Radical act utilitarianism maintains that an action is right if it maximizes utility.
6. Explain the difference between "a priori" and "a posteriori" ethical reasoning. The a priori is taken to be independent of sensory experience, which the a posteriori presupposes. An a priori argument, then, is taken to reason deductively from abstract general premises, while an a posteriori argument relies upon specific information derived from sense perception. The necessary truth of an a priori proposition can be determined by reason alone, but the contingent truth of an a posteriori proposition can be discovered only by reference to some matter of fact.
7. Identify 4 of the 6 characteristics of virtue based ethics: 1. Actions are right if and only if they would be performed by virtuous moral agents 2. Goodness is prior to rightness
3. The virtues are irreducibly pluralistic intrinsic goods 4. Virtues are objective goods
5. Some intrinsic goods are agent relative
6. Acting rightly doesn’t require us to maximize the good
8. Identify and explain 3 of the 5 factors demonstrating the essential humanity of scientists. * Human frailties and foibles
* Abstract understanding vs. human experience