January 30, 2011
Historical development of Nursing Timeline
Nursing has not always been a respected profession. In fact, it was a job reserved for the women of “ill repute.”A publication once read that a nurse should not be subject to headaches or easily “knocked up” (Hutchinson, 1998). However, as the timeline below shows, nursing has evolved over time because of the many contributions of those before us have made. Today, nursing is a respected profession that continues to push any limitations set before it. Famous nurses, such as Nightingale, Mahoney, and Barton left behind a legacy that would changed the way society perceives nurses today and forever.
Table 1. Timeline Table
Event date| Event/Theorist| Impact on Nursing|
1853-1856Crimean war| Florence Nightingale| Assisted in war Improved unsanitary conditionsCollected statistical data| 1861-1865Civil war| ClaraBarton| Established the American Red CrossEnlisted as nurse during war| 1879First African-American Nurse| Mary Mahoney| Became famous as the first African American nurse| 1880| Mary Nuttings| Advocated education for nurses|
1890| Lavinia Dock| Founded the American Society Superintendents of Training schools for Nurses| 1901| Billed passed for licensure of nursing| First time in history that all nurses had to pass an examine for nursing| 1929| The Great Depression| Many “untrained” nurses lost their jobs to trained hospital nurses| 1939 World war I| Emergence of public health| Played a pivotal role in controlling disease in communities and thousands of nurse treated patients in war| 1940World war II| Law enacted to correct inequality in military for nurses| Military nurses were paid low wages and denied rank until law enacted that mandated equality.| 1950| Dorothy Orem| A pioneering theorist that developed Self Care Deficit Model –emphasized taking care of self as independently as possible| 1960| Virginia Henderson| Famous for her definition of “Nursing”Made contributions similar Nightingale | 1970| Jean Watson| Introduced the transpersonal Caring that Model based on spirituality and deeper connection| 1982| Nola Pender| Advocated the Health Promotion Model | 1997| Hildegard Peplau| Introduced a Interpersonal Model that emphasized a nurse/client relationship| 2006| Madeleine Leininger| Developed the overall concept of transcultural nursing and its role in nursing care|
Theorist and Their Impact on Nursing:
Florence Nightingale and Crimean War
Florence Nightingale (1828-1910) was born into a wealthy family in the 18 century. In spite of her parent’s disapproval, she decided to pursue her dream to care for the sick and needy. Nightingale was influenced by her deep religious beliefs and believed that it was her calling by God to serve the sick. She once said “ God spoke to me and call me to do his service” (Wakely and Carson, 2011, p.24). Unlike most woman of her era, she was well educated in different languages and mathematics. In 1853, the Crimean war broke out. Soon afterwards, Nightingale, along with other nurses, headed for Turkey to help the ill soldiers. Upon her arrival, she was shocked by the unsanitary conditions that the men were subjected to. Immediately, she got to work and provided clean and hygienic conditions. Realizing that many troops were dying mostly from infections opposed to injuries, she used her mathematical skills to collect data, and interpret findings. She provided evidence through her research to support that unsanitary conditions and germs were the culprit. As a result, this led to high mortality rates. Much like today, Nightingale did not rely on a hunch. She realized that evidence such as statistical data was the best way to validate her findings. Although she made endless contributions in nursing, she was well known for...