Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry

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HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF THE

INDUSTRY

FRANCESCA STERLACCI and JOANNE ARBUCKLE

HISTORICAL DICTIONARIES OF PROFESSIONS AND INDUSTRIES Edited by Jon Woronoff 1. Japanese Business, by Stuart D. B. Picken, 2007. 2. Fashion Industry, by Francesca Sterlacci and Joanne Arbuckle, 2008.

Francesca Sterlacci Joanne Arbuckle

Historical Dictionaries of Professions and Industries, No. 2

The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham, Maryland • Toronto • Plymouth, UK 2008

SCARECROW PRESS, INC.
Published in the United States of America by Scarecrow Press, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 www.scarecrowpress.com Estover Road Plymouth PL6 7PY United Kingdom Copyright © 2008 by Francesca Sterlacci and Joanne Arbuckle All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sterlacci, Francesca. Historical dictionary of the fashion industry / Francesca Sterlacci, Joanne Arbuckle. p. cm. — (Historical dictionaries of professions and industries) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN-13: 978-0-8108-5454-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8108-5454-6 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Clothing and dress—Dictionaries. 2. Clothing and dress—History— Dictionaries. 3. Clothing trade—History—Dictionaries. I. Arbuckle, Joanne, 1954– . II. Title. TT494.S84 3008 746.9’203—dc22 2007027938

∞ ™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992. Manufactured in the United States of America.

Series Editor’s Foreword Preface

Jon Woronoff

vii ix xi xv xxxvii 1 311 315 317 318 324 327 331 334 337 415

Acronyms and Abbreviations Chronology Introduction THE DICTIONARY Appendixes 1. Fashion Magazines 2. Trend and Forecasting Magazines and Services 3. Periodicals, Newsletters, and Directories 4. Trade Shows 5. Major Trade Associations and Organizations 6. Fashion and Textile Museums 7. Top Fashion Schools 8. Size Ranges Bibliography About the Authors

v

The subject of this volume is the “rag trade,” as it is often affectionately and not at all disrespectfully called by those involved in it. Despite any image this term may evoke, fashion is one of the biggest businesses in the world, one that turns over hundreds of billions of dollars and employs tens of millions of workers. It is a profession, an industry, and, in the eyes of many, an art. This Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry approaches fashion from all three directions by presenting, among other things, talented designers and renowned houses of haute couture, mass merchandisers and more specialized sales outlets, numerous professional and technical production functions, inventions and innovations, and many other aspects that make this business intriguing, glamorous, and truly global in nature. Fashion is one of the oldest industries in the world, as can readily be seen from the chronology, and it has grown out of rather simple beginnings to become one of the most dynamic and sophisticated of all industries, as detailed in the introduction. The dictionary provides hundreds of entries on items such as designers and models; apparel producers, ranging from elite couture houses to mass-market companies; significant articles of apparel and the most popular fabrics; the amazing variety of jobs offered by the sector; publications, trade unions, and international trade organizations; and current troubles like counterfeiting and pirating. While the focus remains on Europe and America, like the industry itself this book...
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