Historical Background

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HITORICAL BACKROUND

I- Author

As we study the book of Haggai, We discover that Haggai was a minor prophet in the Bible according to the Bible whose name means “festive or festival of the LORD”, was the first post –exile prophet. About 50,000 Jews had come back from Babylon after 70 years of captivity. The task before this people was (of the temple, and the reviving) the rebuilding of the wall and city of Jerusalem, the restoration of the temple, and reviving of its religious activities. He is called “Jehovah’s messenger”. Although his style was plain and his language simple, God place upon him the honor of being his spokesperson. Haggai preached for sermons to this returned remnant during a period of three months. They give us the structure of the book. As the book of Haggai begins, 15 months have already elapsed since their return. The temple remains in ruin, and no one was attempted to repair it.[1] In line of this, we also know the prophet already prophesied the prophecies of Haggai before his time. “According to J. Vernon McGee, in the study of this prophecy we will note how important it is to consider the historical book along with the prophetic books. There is a little cluster of the books that belong together; Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther for the historical records and Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi for the prophetic section. Haggai, the writer of this short book, is mentioned in Ezra 5:1-2 and 6:14”[2] “Also according to Samuel J. S Schultz, Haggai delivered four messages to the people before the end of the year. The brevity of this book way indicate that he recorded but a summary of his oral messages”[3]

II- Date of Writing

Haggai begins his book by saying, “In the second year of Daruis the king in the sixth month, in the first day of the month. “Hystaspes (The Daruis Mentioned here), began to reign in 521 B. C, making the second year of his reign about 520 B. C. The second year of Daruis enables the historian to pinpoint the time of this prophet in profane history. It is interesting to note that the post- captivity prophet begin to date their prophecies according to the reign of gentile’s rulers.[4] However, Samuel L. Schultz says, the book of Haggai was written “beginning in late August of 520 B. C.”[5]

III- Place of Writing

Many of books and commentary we explore, but no who determined the exact and accurate where the place of writing the book of Haggai, Probably, we could say that the book of Haggai was written in Jerusalem. “After Cyrus issued a declare allowing Jews who so wished to return to Judah and rebuild the temple. But the Jews opposing were too busy for their self satisfaction building their own houses but the temple were still destroyed.”[6]

IV- Audience

Most of the commentary, the audience of the book of Haggai was the people of Jerusalem and we agreed that according to the Life Application Study Bible stated that the original audience of the book Haggai was “the people living in Jerusalem and those who returned from exile.”[7]

VI- Setting

As we search, we discovered the setting of the book of Haggai during the reign of king Daruis in Babylon. “When the temple in Jerusalem had been destroyed in 586 B. C Cyrus had allowed the Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple in 538 B. C. They had begun the work but had been unable to complete it. Through the ministry of Haggai and Zechariah the temple was completed (520-516 B. C”[8] However, Lawrence O. Richards says

II- Structure of the Book

A- Outline of the Book[9]

CHARTER I I- Rebuke of Indifferent 1:1-4 II- CALL TO SERIOUS REFLECTION 1:5:6 III-...
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