To see which hydro carbons produce the most energy.
Different fuels transfer different amounts of energy when they burn because of the different numbers of carbon atoms in fuel molecules. Prediction
I think that paraffin will give off the most energy when burned because it has more carbon atoms and carbon chains so it will be harder to break these chains making it harder to burn. Although it is harder to burn because it has more chains and carbon atoms it will release a lot of energy than the rest. Also because it is a polymer it has more chains than we can count so it should have lost of energy. However the butanol could be the fuel to produce the most energy because although the paraffin is a polymer since it is harder to burn it will also take longer to burn and it might not burn within the time limit. So since butanol is the fuel with the second highest carbon atoms and the second longest carbon chains it will burn within this time and may produce the most energy. Apparatus
Tongs: I am using tongs because I do not want to burn my hand while holding the test-tube Test tube: I am using this because the thermometer with a cork fits it and also to hold the water. Water: to use as the substance to contain the heat given off by each fuel Spirit burner: I am using this to safely burn the fuels
Thermometer with a cork: I am using a thermometer to take the temperate of the water. The reason I am using one with a cork attached is to keep in as much heat as possible. Timer: I am using the timer to make sure I burn the fuel for the right amount of time Measuring cylinder: I am using the measuring cylinder to measure the water making sure it is the right amount Wooden split: I am using this because it is a safe way of lighting the Bunsen burner Fuels: ethanol, propanol, butanol, paraffin
I am using a range of fuels with different hydrocarbons because I want to see the energy of different fuels. Also this is what is available to me right now. Goggles: to protect the eyes from a variety of dangers
The water which was 15 ml was put into the test tube the reason why the water was 15 ml was because it was not too much that the test tube would over flow. The starting temperature of the water was taken and recorded in the results table this was done to see the difference in temperature between the starting temperature and the finishing. The test tube was placed into the tongs then the spirit burner containing ethanol was lit and when the forty seconds were up the test tube was turned upside down so that the water was touching the thermometer then the temperature was recorded and the water was emptied and replaced then the spirit burner was lit again and the temperature was recorded then the same happened again. The next spirit burner containing propanol was lit and then the temperature was recorded. Then the same happened again and then again once the propanol was used the next spirit burner was lit. This spirit burner contained butanol it was lit the again and again. Then the spirit burner containing paraffin was lit three times. Then the equipment was put away. Controlled Variables
The areas that need to be controlled in this practical is as follows The time: the reason why the time which is 40 seconds should be kept the same because it would not be a fair test and other fuels might burn longer than needed and have higher or lower results The water: the water should be the same amount and the same temperature because if the water is not the same amount the temperature that each fuel makes the water increase by would be lower than it should because it has to use more energy to heat up the extra water. If the temperature of the water is not the same then the other fuels will have heated the water differently. The height: if the water is held at different heights the temperature of the water will be different to that of if it was at the usual height because different parts of the flame...
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