Hesi study

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Community Study Guide for Hesi

Population Groups across the Lifespan
Health Risks

Infants
1. Number 1 cause of injury or death is suffocation followed by MVAs, then homicide 2. Sudden infant death syndrome
3. Infection is the most significant cause of illness in infants and children Children
1. Obesity
a. Healthy people objectives have addressed youth fitness and obesity b. Obesity is defined by using BMI which is a ratio of weight and height c. Risks for childhood obesity were r/t to obesity in the parents d. Obesity rates are higher in populations such as Native Americans, Hispanic and African American groups e. Lower socioeconomic groups in urban settings have also been associated with higher rates 2. Injuries and Accidents

a. Number 1 cause of death I ages 1-24yrs
b. MVAs are the leading cause of death among children and teenagers c. Toddlers experience a large number of falls, poisonings, and MVAs d. School age children have the lowest injury death rate, however this group has difficulty jufging speed and distance, placing them at higher risk for pedestrian and bicycle accidents e. Adolescents injury accounts for 75% of all deaths and risk-taking becomes more conscious at this time especially among males f. Suicide is the 2nd leading cause of death among youths b/t the ages of 15 and 24. Suicide is the 3th leading cause of death among ages 10-24. 3. Acute illness-also a significant cause of illness in children 4. Chronic health problems

a. Improved medical technology has increased the # of children surviving w/ chronic health problems b. Examples of health problems that have been improved: Down syndrome, Spina bifida, Cerebral Palsy, asthma, DM, Congenita HF, cancer, hemophilia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and AIDS Routine immunizations have been very successful in preventing selected diseases Good nutrition is essential for healthy growth and development and influences disease prevention in later life Women

1. The women’s health movement was pivotal in bringing national recognition to women’s health issues 2. Women have a longer life expectancy than men
3. Women are more likely to have acute and chronic conditions that require them to use more services than men 4. Women of color are more statistically more likely to have poor health outcomes bc of poor understanding of health, lack of access to healthcare, and lifestyle practices 5. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in women

6. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in women and the 2nd leading cause of death Men
1. Men are physiologically the more vulnerable gender, shorter life span and higher infant mortality rate 2. Life expectancy of men in the US is one of the lowest in the developed countries 3. Men engage in more risk-taking behaviors than women

4. Men tend to avoid diagnosis of illnesses that may result in serious health problems Elderly
1. Steadily growing population
2. Increase in chronic conditions, demand for services, and strained health care budgets 3. More older adults live in the community
4. Nurses address the chronic health concerns of elders w/ a focus on maintaining or improving self-care and preventing complications to maintain the highest possible quality of life 5. Assessing the elderly incorporates physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains 6. Individual and community focused interventions involve all 3 levels of prevention through collaborative practice US Healthcare Problems

1. More than 43 million people in the US are uninsured, and many more simply lack access to adequate health care 2. Health care reform measures seek to make changes in the cost, quality and access of the present system 3. The integration of primary care and public health is necessary for the future health of the nation 4. To achieve the specific health goals of programs such as healthy people 2010, primary care and public health must work within the community for community-based care 5. The most sustainable individual...
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