This guide has been produced by the ASU in response to questions from Hertfordshire Business School (HBS) students about the important subject of accurate referencing. It is essential for you to reference your work thoroughly because what you write for HBS must be 'evidenced' - your discussion and arguments should consist mainly of academic theory and 'expert' practitioner experience. These two main sources (theory and practice) MUST be referenced throughout your writing. Readers must be able to see which words are your own words and any original ideas, and what sources you have used as evidence to back up your assertions. Good referencing is ESSENTIAL because:
1) Your tutor must be able to check your source.
2) Other readers might want to follow up your work.
3) Your tutor needs to see if you are reading and understanding course material and book lists. 4) If you do not reference, you can be accused of stealing the work and ideas of others, and this is the serious offence of Plagiarism.
The Hertfordshire Business School uses the Harvard referencing system. ASU have produced a 'standardised' version from the many different variations of Harvard that are available because it is important to be consistent with all your references. ASU worked with IH consultants to produce this standard referencing format for HBS. Harvard is a modern 'author-date' system and should not be used in the same document with the older footnote system ('historical' system) which contains numbers in the text and footnotes. The complete reference consists of two parts: an in-text citation and a final reference in the list of References, which has the following order:
HARVARD BASIC ORDER OF INFORMATIONHarvard is an 'Author Date' system, and (if known), you must record the information in this order:Author (Year) Title. Place of publication: Name of publisher.|
If you do not have any part of the information, you will have to leave it out or indicate you do not have it with 'date unknown' for example. Very rarely is the 'author unknown', although it may be a 'corporate' author. You can reference ANY sources using Harvard - the rule is keep the same order of information as stated above.
WHO WROTE THE WORK?
WHEN DID THEY WRITE IT?
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE WORK?
WHERE CAN IT BE FOUND?
References and Bibliography
References are NOT the same as a Bibliography. Your lecturer may ask you to put either one of these, or both at the end of your assignment. Whichever you use, the Harvard style is the same and it must be arranged alphabetically. Here are the differences:
References: References contain a list of all the sources you actually used and 'cited' in the text.
Bibliography: A Bibliography contains all the sources of information that you used as 'background' reading for the assignment but you did not actually cite these sources in the text. A Bibliography should not only include books, but any background sources that you think should be mentioned. Do not make a long Bibliography to impress. Only include items that you think provide useful information for the reader.
Primary and secondary sources: Primary sources are the 'original' sources. Secondary sources are the sources referred to by other authors. This guide gives examples of both types of sources. Remember that ideally, you should always consult the primary source. However, whatever type of source you use, the golden rule is to only cite and reference the source that you actually use. Attribution tense: As a general rule, use the present tense. For example: Brown (2010) suggests… even when the reference is not a current one. The concepts and issues referred to at the time of reference were ‘current’.
Paraphrasing and Quotations: It is good practice to paraphrase other authors’ views. In other words, identify the source(s) of relevant views (Brown, 2010 and Schutte, 1999) and use your...