Henry Fayol

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1.0INTRODUCTION
The Industrial Revolution of the 19th Century had paved the way to the development of organized systematic approaches to management. One of the most influential contributors to the management theory is Henry Fayol. He was the first management theorist who used the term ‘administration’. His theory is generally understood as administrative management theory or Fayolism. In his theory, he focused on the top-level management and managers’ actions, divided the activities of an organization into 6 groups and identified 6 managerial qualities for a manager. Importantly, he devised the famous 14 principles of management and 5 elements of management process. After this, people begin to study his theory and accord the full positive evaluation of his contribution until some decades after his death.

This project assignment gives a review about the overview of life and the development of key work of management theorist, Henry Fayol. The aim of the project is to understand his concepts of management that are practical in top-level management. Another goal with the project is to examine his principles and elements of management as guidelines to be applied for all managers. And also, this project assignment gives some points of view about his theory contributes to modern concepts of management and his achievement in his lifetime.

2.0BACKGROUND
Henry Fayol was a French administrative management theorist and well-known as the father of modern management. He had a extraordinary life. He was born on 29 July 1841 in Istanbul, Turkey. Born that year, his father was an engineer who was appointed superintendent of works to build a bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul. A few years later, he and his family returned to France in 1847 when he was a child.

Had a period time, Fayol studied at the mining school ‘Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines’ in Saint-Etienne of France and eventually graduated in 1860. When he was age of 19, he began working as an engineer at a large mining company which a coal-mining and iron foundry combine, ‘Compagnie de Commentry-Fourchambeault-Decazeville’ in Commentry, France. Through his efforts, he was promoted as mines manager and ultimately became the managing director of the company in 1888. He changed company’s operation with his entrepreneurial approach to management thinking. At that time, the company employed more than 1,000 people. By 1900, the company was one of the largest producers of iron and steel in France and regarded as a vital national industry. In his career, he held that position over 30 years until 1918. Unfortunately, he was dead at age of 84 on 19 November 1925 in Paris, France.

As early as 1900, Fayol formulated and wrote papers about his administrative management ideas from his own experiences. He examined the nature of management and first mentioned the ‘elements’ of administration which came from his book. His book was published in 1916 and was named as ‘Administration Industrielle et Generale’, a comprehensive theory of administration where he described and classified administrative management roles and processes. In 1949, Constance Storrs translated his book in English and entitled ‘General and Industrial Management’ which led to his theory was recognized by others.

3.0RESEARCH DONE
Henry Fayol emphasized the importance of taking a wider view on the organization as a whole, but the analytical approaches were similar. In his work, ‘General and Industrial Management’ which was published in English in 1949, he outlined his theory of general management which he believed could be applied to the administration of any industries. He enlightened managers on how to accomplish their managerial duties and the practices in which they should engage. He paid attention to the functions of administration and to this end he presented the principles and elements of management.

As Fayol mentioned in his book: “Everyone needs some concepts of management; in the home, in...
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