Henri Poincare
(1854-1912)
“If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature were not worth knowing, it would not be worth living.” –Henri Poincare Jules Henri Poincare was a famous French mathematician born in Nancy, France on April 29, 1854. He is known for contributing to works in pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, as well as celestial mathematics. He founded the mathematical theory of dynamical systems, or qualitative dynamics and formulated the Poincare conjecture that is one of the most famous mathematical problems today. Some people even credit him as a co-discover of the theory of relativity along with Einstein and Lorenz. In 1899 Poincare won the competition that King Oscar (of Sweden) had stated where he wanted someone to determine the stability of the solar system. From this Poincare taking into account Newton’s law of gravitation found that mathematical chaos was hidden in Newton’s equation for three or more bodies. From his calculations and observation he was able to describe basic properties of deterministic chaos which refers to the world of dynamics. Poincare’s work in qualitative methods led him to the study of topology, where he created most of the key concepts this includes the fundamental group and basic ideas homology theory. This culminated with his Poincare conjecture statement in 1904. Poincare was very important to the advancement in mathematics, but sadly died before the outbreak of WWII at the age of 58 on July 17, 1912.

Works Cited
"Henri Poincare." Exploratorium: the Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception. The Exploratorium, 1966. Web. 14 Sept. 2011. <http://www.exploratorium.edu/complexity/CompLexicon/poincare.html>. "HENRI POINCARE." United States Naval Academy | Home Page. Web. 14 Sept. 2011. <http://www.usna.edu/Users/math/meh/poincare.html>.

...Web Quest, HenriPoincareHenriPoincare is also known as the "Last Universalist," which refers to a man who is at ease in all branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. Poincare was a mathematical and scientific genius who was able to make many major contributions to such diverse fields as analysis, algebra, topology, astronomy, and theoretical physics. Poincare had many creative ideas and he was published extensively. Poincare entered a contest sponsored by the King of Sweden and was able to address the idea that the solar system, as modeled by Newton's equations, is dynamically stable. This idea of dynamical chaos addressed the question in a generalization of the three body problem, which was considered one of the most difficult problems in mathematical physics. The three body problem consists of nine simultaneous differential equations. The difficulty was in showing that a solution in terms of invariants converges. While Poincare did not succeed in giving a complete solution, his work was so impressive that he still won the prize. His work, though incomplete, was of such importance that it began a new era in the history of celestial mechanics (Argosy University, 2008).
Poincare was a visionary who described the Hallmark of Chaos, or the sensitive dependence on initial conditions that determine the final outcome. He explained that small...

...later mathematicians, especially Girolama Saccheri, tried to out do the work of Euclid but all eventually gave up when they realized that his theories were flawless due to his extensive proofs.
He even adventured into new branches of mathematics and science. First, he published his book, Optiks, which discussed perspective and how people view the world through their eyes. His influence in this realm, although overlooked by most, is extremely influential. He also studied catoptrics, or the mathematical functions of mirrors. He again applied deductive reasoning to understand the principles behind mirrors. He also became an important figure in the study of data, conics, and ratios through his work in arithmetic and geometry.
Euclid’s influence on modern mathematics and society are immeasurable. For students studying geometry worldwide, his influence is obvious. As the renowned Father of Geometry, Euclid created the foundation for the field in his Elements. He created a foundation which other mathematicians built off of for the next 2000 years. Without his work, the work of scientists and mathematicians, such as Ptolemy, Brahmagupta, Isaac Newton, Leonhard Euler, and Carl Friedrich Gauss, would not have been possible. Deductive reasoning strategies would also be much less common and popular. Therefore, geometry students would never have the opportunity to use proofs to come to conclusions about various geometric shapes...

...the stage for amazing inroads in math and science when others built upon the groundwork he created.
Newton made many discoveries in areas related to optics, the theory of finite differences, and innovative applications in geometry. Based on his very unique work, he received a great deal of acclaim. This led to him being named Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. Traditionally, a person who was awarded such a position had to become a priest. Newton was given an exemption from that rule.
René Descartes (1596-1650)
Born: March 31, 1596, in La Haye en Touraine, Kingdom of France
Died: Feb 11, 1650 (at age 53), in Stockholm, Swedish Empire
Nationality: French
Famous For: Developing the Cartesian coordinate system
Contribution to mathematics
Descartes developed Cartesian (analytical) geometry, which is the use of algebra to examine geometric properties. He created an empirical comprehension of rainbows, along with proposing a naturalistic account for the solar system’s formation. This led Pope Alexander VII to add his works to the List of Prohibited Books.
Born: c. 287 BC in Syracuse, Sicily
Died: c. 212 BC (at about age 75) in Syracuse, Sicily
Nationality: Greek
Famous For: Accurate calculation for pi
Archimedes (c. 287 –...

...Mathematicians of the 17th Century
Jacob Bernoulli (also known as James or Jacques) (27 December 1654/6 January 1655 – 16 August 1705) was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
He became familiar with calculus through a correspondence with Gottfried Leibniz, then collaborated with his brother Johann on various applications, notably publishing papers ontranscendental curves (1696) and isoperimetry(1700, 1701). In 1690, Jacob Bernoulli became the first person to develop the technique for solving separable differential equations.
Upon returning to Basel in 1682, he founded a school for mathematics and the sciences. He was appointed professor of mathematics at theUniversity of Basel in 1687, remaining in this position for the rest of his life.
Jacob Bernoulli is best known for the work Ars Conjectandi (The Art of Conjecture), published eight years after his death in 1713 by his nephew Nicholas. In this work, he described the known results in probability theory and in enumeration, often providing alternative proofs of known results. This work also includes the application of probability theory to games of chance and his introduction of the theorem known as the law of large numbers. The terms Bernoulli trial and Bernoulli numbers result from this work. The lunar crater Bernoulli is also named after him jointly with his brother Johann.
John Craig (1663 – October 11, 1731) was...

...Monet provided a sense of movement by pushing the wind and the sunlight against each other. The woman’s scarf, her dress, and the grass each bring the feeling of a breeze blowing to the viewer. He emphasized the sunlight in the background by setting the people against the sky, as to view them from a low perspective. Monet did well in keeping his viewer’s eye on the page by placing similar greens on the top and bottom of the painting (Harden). He used the basics of impressionism to help the viewer sense the fragrance of the flowers and the fresh air (Kelder 44). Monet knew the principles of impressionist art and conveyed them in a powerful way. His art, although different, was beautiful and became popular among the people of his day
Fauvism
Henri Matisse was very undistinguished in his early periods. He was a late bloomer, learning to paint well into his thirties (Wayne 1). His first painting was Nature morte aux livres (Still Life with Books), its realist style wasn’t his forte (moodbooks.com 1). Soon Matisse was experimenting. Matisse when through many art styles in his life, from neo impressionism to pointillism, he had his fingers in many pies. In 1905 Matisse created fauvism, or the wild beasts. From then on his paintings would never be the same. He became the king of color (Cumming 99). In the 1910’s he started Orientalism. The odalisques were of a much different pattern (Abrams/Cameo 28). Fauvism and Orientalism are very different, but still alike in...

...Allen Alemania
Period 5
ELA10B
Mr. Tanguay
08/04/2014
The Most Dangerous Game
1. Rainsford is uncompassionate, this is seen when he’s talking to Whitney. “‘Don’t talk rot, Whitney.’ Said Rainsford. ‘You’re a big game hunter not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels’ ”.This shows how he’s uncompassionate because he takes no account for how the animals feel. It’s all about the sport. He is also a very proud person. This is seen when he boasts about his sport, hunting, and how it’s the best sport in the word. Rainsford is also courageous. This is seen when he is not deterred by the superstition that surrounds Ship Trap Island. He could also be perceived as strong when he swims to the shore after he is thrown off the boat. This is seen as strong because such a feat would be seen as impossible in open waters.
2. One way the author foreshadows that something is going to happen was the name of the island. The name ‘Ship-Trap Island’ implies that the ship might crash or that they might become stranded on the island. The superstition that surrounds the island also foreshadows that something bad may happen. If there were enough incidents to create a whole superstition about the island then the problem must reoccur fairly often. If it happens often then what’s there to say that it won’t happen to Rainsford. You could also take the sudden change of emotion from Rainsford as foreshadowing. This is seen when he has a ‘mental chill; a sort of sudden dread’ as they...

...the only way to do good work in mathematics and to preserve his health was never to allow anyone to make him get up in the morning before he felt like it
On leaving school in 1612 Descartes went to Paris to be introduced to the world of fashion. Through the medium of the Jesuits, he met Mydorge, and renewed his childhood friendship with Mersenne. Together they devoted two years, from 1615 1617, to the study of mathematics. During that time a man of position usually entered either the army or the church and so in 1617 Descartes joined the army of Prince Maurice of Orange, then at Breda. Walking through the streets one day in Breda he noticed a placard in Dutch which made him quite curious. He asked a stranger to translate it into either French or Latin. The stranger was Isaac Beeckman, the head of the Dutch College at Dort. He told Descartes he would do so only if he would answer it for him. The placard was a challenge to the world to solve a certain geometrical problem. Descartes worked it out within a few hours, and a close friendship had formed between the two.This unexpected test of his mathematical attainments made the unpleasant life of the army distasteful to him, but because of family influence and tradition he remained a soldier. He was persuaded at the commencement of the Thirty Years' War he was persuaded to volunteer under Count de Bucquoy in the Bavarian army. He continued all this time however, to occupy his leisure with mathematical studies. He...

...Indian Mathematicians
RAMANUJAN
He was born on 22na of December 1887 in a small village of Tanjore district, Madras. He failed in English in Intermediate, so his formal studies were stopped but his self-study of mathematics continued.
He sent a set of 120 theorems to Professor Hardy of Cambridge. As a result he invited Ramanujan to England.
Ramanujan showed that any big number can be written as sum of not more than four prime numbers.
He showed that how to divide the number into two or more squares or cubes.
When Mr .Litlewood came to see Ramanujan in taxi number 1729, Ramanujan said that 1729 is the smallest number which can be written in the form of sum of cubes of two numbers in two ways, i.e. 1729 = 93 + 103 = 13 + 123 since then the number 1729 is called Ramanujan’s number.
In the third century B.C, Archimedes noted that the ratio of circumference of a circle to its diameter is constant. The ratio is now called ‘pi ( Π )’ (the 16th letter in the Greek alphabet series)
The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 1053 with specific names as early as 5000 B.C. during the Vedic period.
Srinivasa Ramanujan Aiyangar was an Indian Mathematician who was born in Erode, India in 1887 on December 22. He was born into a family that was not very well to do. He went to school at the nearby place, Kumbakonam. Ramanujan is very well known for his efforts on continued fractions and series of...