The roots of modern-day organizations can be traced back at least 2000 years to models of Chinese military hierarchy. However, one of the first people to capture on paper the processes and practices of organisations was Henri Fayol (1841–1925), a mining engineer and manager by profession (Middleton, 2002). Fayol defined the nature and working patterns of the twentieth-century organization in his book, General and Industrial Management, published in 1916. In it, he laid down what he called 14 principles of management.... [continues]
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