Kinesiology 38(2006) 2:116-125
THE INFLUENCE OF FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF OBSERVATION BASED TEACHING ON THE COGNITIVE LEVEL OF LEARNING1 Spiridon Kampiotis and Kalliopi Theodorakou University of Athens, Greece Original scientific paper UDC 159.953.5:165.194
Abstract: One of the most popular methods for coaches and teachers, as far as the understanding of an exercise on the cognitive level is concerned, is the method of learning via modeling. Research has shown that this method is fairly effective. Nevertheless, other factors interfere in the observation of a model, for example oral intervention by the teacher. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of five different teaching methods on the Level of Cognitive Acquisition of Execution (LCAE), on the basis of the observation of a model. Ninety-three individuals, aged 17-21, participated in the study. The sample was divided into the following five groups: A) Oral Intervention (verbal description) by the Teacher (OIT). B) Observation of Model Without any other Intervention (OMWI). C) Observation of Model and Oral Intervention by the Teacher (OMOIT) before each execution. D) Observation of Model and Oral Intervention by the Model (OMOIM) before each execution. E) Observation of Animated Model and Oral Intervention by the Teacher (OAOIT) before each execution. The results of the study showed a significant difference (F = 30.9 and p < .0001) from pre- to post-test for the whole sample. Additionally, the five experimental groups, separately, showed significant statistical differences (p < .0001). Meta-anova analysis revealed that the greater influence in the improvement of LCAE was observed in (OMOIM), followed by (OAOIT), (OMOIT), (OIT) and (OMWI). Key words: modeling, observation learning, animation
Observation learning through modeling is the most popular method in the teaching of motor skills (Bird & Ross, 1984). These theories are presented in previous and recent literature. From the beginning of the 20th century scientists have used learning through observation as a basis for their research (Adams, 1987; Bandura, 1962, 1971, 1977; Black & Wrigth, 2000; Shefﬁeld, 1961), and this method is now widely accepted and effective in physical education and sports skills’ acquisition (Garay & Hernadez, 2002; Magill, 1993; Pollock & Lee, 1992; Raudsepp & Raie, 2001). Weeks (1992) mentioned that cognitive learning through modeling is equally important to motor learning through modeling, as a source of information. It seems that the cognitive process plays a determinant role in the acquisition of motor skills (Downey, 1988), and the observation of a model helps the trainees to develop a cognitive representation, which regulates the production of movement and serves as a comparison measure for
the correctness of a skill. Shefﬁeld (1961) developed the theory of symbolic representation, which maintains that a person observing a demonstration of a motor skill forms a cognitive symbolic representation of this skill. The person can recall symbolically the demonstration of the model from the cognitive program that is created. Thus, in the case of simple and brief tasks, the projection of a ﬁlmed motor skill is enough for the observer to learn the required series of movement execution. In the meantime, Bandura (1962, 1971, 1977) established the mediational-contiguity theory, also known as the social learning theory. Like Shefﬁeld, Bandura believed that cognitive involvement in the learning process via observation of a model is critical. Most of the cognitive processes, which adjust the behavior, are at the beginning rather oral than visual. The verbal coding of the observed events probably accounts for the notable speed of observational learning via modeling and the long-term retention of the model’s behavior. The verbal codes
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