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Kampiotis, S. and Theodorakou, K.: THE INFLUENCE OF FIVE DIFFERENT ...

Kinesiology 38(2006) 2:116-125

THE INFLUENCE OF FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF OBSERVATION BASED TEACHING ON THE COGNITIVE LEVEL OF LEARNING1 Spiridon Kampiotis and Kalliopi Theodorakou University of Athens, Greece Original scientific paper UDC 159.953.5:165.194

Abstract: One of the most popular methods for coaches and teachers, as far as the understanding of an exercise on the cognitive level is concerned, is the method of learning via modeling. Research has shown that this method is fairly effective. Nevertheless, other factors interfere in the observation of a model, for example oral intervention by the teacher. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of five different teaching methods on the Level of Cognitive Acquisition of Execution (LCAE), on the basis of the observation of a model. Ninety-three individuals, aged 17-21, participated in the study. The sample was divided into the following five groups: A) Oral Intervention (verbal description) by the Teacher (OIT). B) Observation of Model Without any other Intervention (OMWI). C) Observation of Model and Oral Intervention by the Teacher (OMOIT) before each execution. D) Observation of Model and Oral Intervention by the Model (OMOIM) before each execution. E) Observation of Animated Model and Oral Intervention by the Teacher (OAOIT) before each execution. The results of the study showed a significant difference (F = 30.9 and p < .0001) from pre- to post-test for the whole sample. Additionally, the five experimental groups, separately, showed significant statistical differences (p < .0001). Meta-anova analysis revealed that the greater influence in the improvement of LCAE was observed in (OMOIM), followed by (OAOIT), (OMOIT), (OIT) and (OMWI). Key words: modeling, observation learning, animation

Introduction
Observation learning through modeling is the most popular method in the teaching of motor skills (Bird &...