Heinemann Physics -Content and Contexts Units 2a & 2b Solutions

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 2A and 2B

Worked solutions
Contents Unit 2A
Aerospace physics Medical physics: atoms in action 3 5

Chapter 1 Measurement and data
1.1 Measurement and units 1.2 Data 1.3 Graphical analysis of data Chapter review 7 7 8 10

Chapter 2 Describing motion
2.1 Describing motion in a straight line 2.2 Speed, velocity and acceleration 2.3 Graphing motion: position, velocity and acceleration 2.4 Equations of motion Chapter review 14 15 17 20 23

Chapter 3 Forces and their effects
3.1 Force as a vector 3.2 Vector techniques 3.3 Newton’s first law of motion 3.4 Newton’s second law of motion 3.5 Newton’s third law of motion Chapter review 27 28 34 35 37 40

Chapter 4 Energy and momentum
4.1 The relationship between momentum and force 4.2 Conservation of momentum 4.3 Work 4.4 Mechanical energy 4.5 Energy transformation and power 4.6 Elastic and inelastic collisions Chapter review 45 46 47 48 50 51 52

Chapter 5 Nuclear energy
5.1 Atoms, isotopes and radioisotopes 5.2 Alpha, beta and gamma radiation 5.3 Properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation 5.4 Half-life and activity of radioisotopes 5.5 Splitting the atom: nuclear fission 5.6 Nuclear fission weapons 5.7 Nuclear reactors Chapter review Copyright © Pearson Australia 2009 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd)

56 57 58 58 60 60 61 62
Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 2A and 2B ISBN 978 1 7408 1791 2

Page 1 of 85

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 2A and 2B Unit 2B Controlling our environment Electricity at home 64 66

Chapter 6 Heating and cooling
6.1 Heat: a historical perspective 6.2 Kinetic theory 6.3 Heat and temperature 6.4 Specific heat capacity 6.5 Latent heat 6.6 Evaporation: heat energy in context 6.7 Conduction and convection 6.8 Radiation Chapter review 67 67 68 68 70 70 71 72 72

Chapter 7 Electricity
7.1 Electrical charge 7.2 Electric forces and fields 7.3 Electric current, EMF and electric potential 7.4 Resistance, ohmic and non-ohmic conductors 7.5 Electrical energy and power 7.6 Simple electric circuits 7.7 Circuit elements in parallel 7.8 Cells, batteries and other sources of EMF Chapter review 75 75 76 76 78 79 80 82 83

Copyright © Pearson Australia 2009 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd)

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 2A and 2B ISBN 978 1 7408 1791 2 Page 2 of 85

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 2A and 2B

Unit 2A
Aerospace physics
E1

E2 E3

E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 E10 E11 E12

E13

E14

E15 E16 E17

The vector diagram above shows how a jet engine provides an aircraft with forward thrust. Ff is the forward push of air on the jet, Fa is the push of the jet on the air, and Fd is air resistance. The sudden change in relative air speed causes a large and sudden change in the lift generated by air speed past the wing. This can be enough to cause a stall. The aerofoil shape is only part of the lift generated by the wing. The transfer of momentum from air incident on the surface of the wing also contributes large amounts of lift. The amount of lift from this source is determined by the angle of attack. A plane flying upside down will maintain an angle of attack sufficient to generate the lift required. Lift coefficient, L = C1 × ½ ρv × 2A; therefore a doubling of air speed will produce four times the lift than at the original speed. Reducing drag for a glider can be achieved by making it small and light, having a small frontal area, a very smooth outer skin, and long and narrow wings. Broad wings provide lift at low speeds for take-off and, with flaps extended, extra drag for landing. At high speeds, swept-back wings reduce drag and lift, which is proportional to speed. The surface was pushed off by the increased pressure under the surface of the wing or by a high angle of attack. The sheets of paper come together due to the creation of a low pressure region between the sheets as a result of the faster...
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