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INTRODUCTION
Pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections are the leading causes of death worldwide. Because pneumonia is common and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, properly diagnosing pneumonia, correctly recognizing any complications or underlying conditions, and appropriately treating patients are important. Although in developed countries the diagnosis is usually made on the basis of radiographic findings, the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined pneumonia solely on the basis of clinical findings obtained by visual inspection and on timing of the respiratory rate. Pneumonia may originate in the lung or may be a focal complication of a contiguous or systemic inflammatory process. Abnormalities of airway patency as well as alveolar ventilation and perfusion occur frequently due to various mechanisms. These derangements often significantly alter gas exchange and dependent cellular metabolism in the many tissues and organs that determine survival and contribute to quality of life. Recognition, prevention, and treatment of these problems are major factors in the care of children with pneumonia. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMPS

Pneumonia can occur at any age, although it is more common in younger children. Pneumonia accounts for 13% of all infectious illnesses in infants younger than 2 years. Newborns with pneumonia commonly present with poor feeding and irritability, as well as tachypnea, retractions, grunting, and hypoxemia. Infections with group B Streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, or gram-negative rods (eg, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) are common causes of bacterial pneumonia. Group B streptococci infections are most often transmitted to the fetus in utero. The most commonly isolated virus is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Cough is the most common symptom of pneumonia in infants, along with tachypnea, retractions, and hypoxemia. These may be accompanied by congestion, fever, irritability, and decreased...
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