London Heathrow Terminal 5
The plans for this project began as far back as 1982, where there was an on-going debate as to whether the aviation industry in the United Kingdom should expand through Heathrow Airport or Stansted Airport. The objective of the operation was to add a fifth passenger terminal to Heathrow to handle the tourism coming into London, also with the intentions of increasing the capacity of Heathrow Airport from 65 million people per year to 97 million people per year. Plans for the building of Terminal 5 began in 1988. The project was given a budget of under £4.5 billion. The main stakeholders in this operation were Willy Walsh (CEO of British Airways at the time), and Tony Douglas (CEO of BAA at the time). Terminal Five was going to be made using the latest technology in order to make the airport experience much easier for the public, and also to keep up with the leading airports in the world. The public were originally very strongly opposing the plans, with local people and local councils claiming it would cause more noise pollution, air pollution and traffic congestion in their area. The first design milestone for this project came in the late 1980's when architect Richard Rogers of 'Richard Rogers Partnership Architecture Firm' was appointed with the task of designing the structure. British Airports Authority (BAA) officially announced a proposal to expand through building Terminal 5 at Heathrow in May of 1992. Terminal 5 had to fulfil a number of needs as an airport terminal, such as retail facilities, rail terminal, multi-storey car park, production lines etc.
The development of Terminal 5 was an extremely time-consuming journey which started in the late 1980's when Richard Rogers Partnership was appointed with the task of designing the terminal. Planning applications were submitted in 1993, and a public enquiry was held from 1995 to 1999 to examine the every need of this new terminal, and every aspect of the design of the structure that was about to be introduced. Eight years after the initial planning application, the transport minister had made the decision to grant planning permission on behalf of the British government. It was the longest public enquiry in UK history with legal costs reaching 80m pounds and contained over 700 building conditions. At the time Terminal 5 was the largest construction project in Europe and cost a staggering 4.2bn. Phase one of the project included many systems of systems; it contains two main terminal satellites, car parks with over 4,000 spaces, major tunnelling and excavations, underground bagging system, road rail extensions, air traffic control tower, a hotel containing 600 bedrooms, 60 aircraft stands, as well as transit systems. The British Airports Authority felt they had to upgrade their airport to keep in competition with other main hub airports.
Construction of the project went underway in the Summer of 2002 and was originally a five year plan. Five key stages were identified in the construction of Heathrow Terminal 5: * Site Preparation & Enabling Works
* Ground Works
* Major Structures
* Fit Out
Site Preparation and Enabling Works
A major archaeology excavation took place on the Terminal 5 site, where there were over 80,000 artefacts found during the excavation. Also operations such as levelling the site, laying foundations, extensive tunnelling to cater for the large underground baggage and railway system that was to be put in place for the airport. Groundworks
March 2005 also saw the completion of developed road infrastructure (internal airside roads). A new spur road off the M25 was also completed and opened in April 2008 in order to improve access to the terminal. Underground railroad tunnel connections between Heathrow express and Terminal 5 were finally completed in September 2004 after four and half months of tunnelling. Terminal 5 has six platforms,...