Heat engine lab
Intro: when an engine runs, it pumps pistons that move up and down and provide energy to the engine to it to go. These pistons move because of pressure and heat. This work done on the system is not only mechanical but its also thermodynamic. When a piston undergoes one full cycle its displacement is zero because it comes back to its resting place. This means that its net thermodynamic work to be done should also be zero, as well as its total internal energy. In order to test this experiment is setup with the purpose of verifying that the mechanical work done in lifting a mass, m, through a vertical distance, h, is equal to the net thermal dynamic work done during a cycle by a mass lifting the heat engine. If we calculate the values for thermodynamic work and mechanical work they should be the same. Once these values are calculated they will be compared to each other and the conclusion will be drawn.

Analysis:
Once the results were printed, some values had to be calculated and compared to one another. The first value needed was the Thermodynamic Work on the system which was founded by the equation: With=(pi(d^2))/4*(Pb-Pa)*(hc-hb). Where d was given to be 32.5mm, Pb and Pa where the pressures at the points B and A measured in kPA, and hb and hc are the heights of the piston at point B and C. This comes out to be: Wth= 1.37E^-2J. Next, the mechanical work had to be calculated using the equation: Wm= mgh. Where m is the mass in kg, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the change in height from B to C. This comes out to be: Wm= 1.47E^-2J. When compared together these values should be identical because a joule is a joule is a joule and the values shouldn’t change. These reigns true with this experiment because of how close these values truly are to each other. Questions:

1). The temperatures do change from B to C and from D to A
2). Yes there is thermodynamic work done from B to C which is positive, and from D to A which is...

...Applied Science Research 12th Grade 10/21/07
Stirling Engine
Brandon Risberg Abstract: This paper includes a historical overview of the Stirling engine. It also includes an overview of the mechanics of a Stirling engine, and the results of the author’s project to build a Stirling engine. Although this engine did not work, this paper includes ways to improve in future projects. History: The original Stirlingengine was designed and developed by Reverend Dr Robert Stirling [1], a fantastic engineer and a reverend with the church. At that time it was called a ‘hot air’ engine, no one knows when the term Sterling engine became widely accepted. Stirling received the original patent in 1816, and had his first engine built and working as a water pump in a quarry in 1818, and later powering an iron foundry in 1845. Stirling was trying to come up with an alternative to the current steam engine and later the internal combustion engine. The downside to the steam engine is the necessity to use boilers, which have the off chance to explode. Stirling sought to build an equivalent engine that would not have such a potentially deadly side effect. Although the Stirling engine eventually lost to the steam engine for popular support, it continues to be useful. The Stirling...

...Abstract:
This report will show the acquired understanding of the refrigeration cycle by using first and second laws of thermodynamics. In order to analyze this system several assumptions where made such like an isentropic process at the compressor an isenthalpic expansion in the throttling valve. Diagrams will be provided to depict these thermodynamic processes in addition to computing the heat transferred to the system and the work input to the compressor.
Table of Contents
Abstract .................................................................................................................................................... 2
Table List ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................4 Descriptions…………...............................................................................................................................5 Theory………………….............................................................................................................................. 7 Calculation................................................................................................................................................8 Discussion....

...atmospheric pressure is 88 kPa. Now, heat is transferred to refrigerant-134a until the temperature is 15°C. Determine (a) the final pressure, (b) the change in the volume of the cylinder, and (c) the change in the enthalpy of the refrigerant-134a.
3. Determine the specific volume of superheated water vapor at 10 MPa and 400°C, using (a) the ideal-gas equation, (b) the steam tables. 4. Determine the specific volume of superheated water vapor at 3.5 MPa and 450°C based on (a) the ideal-gas equation, (b) the steam tables. 5. A 3.27-m3 tank contains 100 kg of nitrogen at 175 K. Determine the pressure in the tank, using (a) the ideal-gas equation. Compare your results with the actual value of 1505 kPa. 6. A 1-m3 tank contains 2.841 kg of steam at 0.6 MPa. Determine the temperature of the steam, using (a) the idealgas equation 7. A piston–cylinder device initially contains 0.07 m3 of nitrogen gas at 130 kPa and 120°C. The nitrogen is now expanded to a pressure of 100 kPa polytropically with a polytropic exponent whose value is equal to the specific heat ratio (called isentropic expansion). Determine the final temperature and the boundary work done during this process. 8. A mass of 5 kg of saturated water vapor at 300 kPa is heated at constant pressure until the temperature reaches 200°C. Calculate the work done by the steam during this process. 9. A 0.5-m3 rigid tank contains refrigerant-134a initially at 160 kPa and 40 percent quality....

...Temperature Scales
Ex: At what temperature will the reading on the Fahrenheit scale be numerically equal to that on the Celsius scale?
The relationship between the two scales is given by TF = (9/5)TC + 32.0. We want the temperature when TF = TC, so we make that substitution. Rearranging gives
Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity
Q = mc T 4186 J = 1 kcal
Ex: If 15 kcal of heat are added to 5.0 kg of silver, by how much will its temperature rise?
Ex: An aluminum cup having a mass of 250.0 g is filled with 50.0 g of water. The initial temperature of the cup and water is 25.0 °C. A 75.0-g piece of iron initially at 350.0 °C is dropped into the water. What is the final equilibrium temperature of the system assuming that no heat is lost to the outside environment?
Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat
The Transfer of Heat
The heat conducted through a bar is
The Stefan - Boltzmann law gives the radiant energy emitted or absorbed by an object:
Radiation
Ex: The sun shines directly on one side of a flat black panel on a spacecraft which has an area of 5.0 m2 and an emissivity of e = 0.95. The spacecraft is located 1.5 1011 m from the sun. How much power does the panel absorb from the sun if the sun is considered to be an ideal blackbody with a temperature of 5700 K? Assuming that the panel can only lose...

...HEATENGINE WORKING CYCLES
An engine is a device which transforms one form of energy into another form. However, while transforming energy from one form to another form, the efficiency of conversion plays an important role. Normally, most of the engines convert thermal energy to mechanical work and therefore they are called ‘heatengines’. Heatengine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal energy and utilizes this thermal energy to perform useful work. Depending upon whether the working substance is a gas or a liquid-vapour, there are two kinds of cycles, the non-phase change cycle and the phase change cycle. The non-phase change cycle employs a gas which remains in the same phase throughout the working cycle. The phase change cycle employs a substance that is usually a liquid to start with but which becomes a vapour after energy intake as heat, and may even be superheated during part of the cycle. This vapour is later condensed to repeat the cycle. In all present day phase change cycles, energy addition to the working fluid occurs outside the device, where work is done. In most non-phase change cycles, energy addition occurs in the cylinder where work is done.
Apart from the difference in cycles due to the nature of the working substance, working cycles may also be classified as open and closed cycles. In an...

...ENGINE EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY WITH QUASITURBINES
KAVIRAJ.P* DINAKARAN.K*
*Pre-final year Automobile students, Madras Institute of Technology,
Anna University, Chennai
Kavi.royalz@gmail.com demon.deen@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Today hybrid concepts with energy storage are ways to correct the poor piston engine efficiency at reduced power. There are at least 2 other ways to improve the piston engine efficiencies: exhaust heat recovery and detonation combustion mode. Exhaust heat recovery could further be used on today hybrid engines to further increase its overall efficiency. The energy components carried away by the exhaust, are primarily results of incomplete combustion, incomplete expansion, sensible heat, and latent heat of the water vapor created by burning of the hydrogen component of fuel. This paper provides a simple analysis of a typical vehicle energy and power demand in acceleration and steady driving, and looks at the management of heat recovery energy and power, which could reach the 25% range in steady driving and much more in city driving (available energy increasing with decreased engine efficiency). Quasiturbine systems using...

...the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space is 38 kJ/s, calculate the mass flow rate of the refrigerant.
4.
Consider an ideal gas refrigeration cycle using helium as the working fluid. Helium enters the compressor at 100 kPa and –20°C and is compressed to 220 kPa. Helium is then cooled to 20°C before it enters the turbine. For a mass flow rate of 0.22 kg/s, calculate the net power input required.
5.
Steam expands in a turbine from 6 MPa and 500(C to 0.2 MPa and 150(C at a rate of 1.2 kg/s. Heat is lost from the turbine at a rate of 34 kJ/s during the process. Find the power output of the turbine.
6.
An Otto cycle with air as the working fluid has a compression ratio of 8.2. Under cold air standard conditions, find the thermal efficiency of this cycle.
7.
A simple ideal Rankine cycle operates between the pressure limits of 20 kPa and 3 MPa, with a turbine inlet temperature of 500(C. Disregarding the pump work, find the cycle efficiency.
8.
Helium gas in an ideal Otto cycle is compressed from 12(C and 2 L to 0.25 L, and its temperature increases by an additional 800(C during the heat addition process. Calculate the temperature of helium before the expansion process.
9.
Air in an ideal Diesel cycle is compressed from 4 L to 0.25 L, and then it expands during the constant pressure heat addition process to 0.50 L. Under cold air standard conditions, determine the thermal efficiency of this...