1.
The water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer as shown in Figure 1. Determine the gage pressure of air in the tank if h1=0.2m, h2=0.3m, and h3=0.46m. Take the densities of mercury, water, and oil are given to be 13,600, 1000, and 850 kg/m3, respectively.

2.
A piston cylinder device initially contains 0.07m3 of nitrogen gas at 130KPa and 120oC. The nitrogen is now expanded polytropically to a state of 100KPa and 100oC. Determine the boundary work done during this process.

3.
A refrigerator operates on the ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle with R-134a as the working fluid between the pressure limits of 120 kPa and 800 kPa. If the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space is 38 kJ/s, calculate the mass flow rate of the refrigerant.

4.
Consider an ideal gas refrigeration cycle using helium as the working fluid. Helium enters the compressor at 100 kPa and –20°C and is compressed to 220 kPa. Helium is then cooled to 20°C before it enters the turbine. For a mass flow rate of 0.22 kg/s, calculate the net power input required.

5.
Steam expands in a turbine from 6 MPa and 500(C to 0.2 MPa and 150(C at a rate of 1.2 kg/s. Heat is lost from the turbine at a rate of 34 kJ/s during the process. Find the power output of the turbine.

6.
An Otto cycle with air as the working fluid has a compression ratio of 8.2. Under cold air standard conditions, find the thermal efficiency of this cycle. 7.
A simple ideal Rankine cycle operates between the pressure limits of 20 kPa and 3 MPa, with a turbine inlet temperature of 500(C. Disregarding the pump work, find the cycle efficiency.

8.
Helium gas in an ideal Otto cycle is compressed from 12(C and 2 L to 0.25 L, and its temperature increases by an additional 800(C during the heat addition process. Calculate the temperature of helium before the expansion process.

...
School of Petroleum Engineering
Design Project for Petroleum Engineers
PTRL 3022
Group Report
Mass & Energy Balances
Group 3
Done by; Student No;
Khalid Al-Abadi 3392461
Ahmed Al-Suleimani 3389102
Munther Al-Kalbani 3389087
Due date: 29/ 8/ 2012
Contents
1. Executive summary 2
2. Introduction 3
3. GOSP diagram 4
4. Gas Fractionation diagram 5
5. Three phase separation 6
6. Two phase separation 7
7. Oil water separator 7
8. Dehydration 8
9. Desalting 9
10. Energy Balance Calculations 9
11. Gas Fractionation Calculations 11
12. Conclusion 14
Executive Summary
The aim of this report is to calculate the amount of the dry oil that can be obtained after processing the wellhead feed. Gas Oil separation Plant is used to achieve this goal. The process involves a three phase separator, two phase separators, gas fractionation, Dehydration and Desalting. At the end of the...

...ENGINE EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY WITH QUASITURBINES
KAVIRAJ.P* DINAKARAN.K*
*Pre-final year Automobile students, Madras Institute of Technology,
Anna University, Chennai
Kavi.royalz@gmail.com demon.deen@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Today hybrid concepts with energy storage are ways to correct the poor piston engine efficiency at reduced power. There are at least 2 other ways to improve the piston engine efficiencies: exhaust heat recovery and detonation combustion mode. Exhaust heat recovery could further be used on today hybrid engines to further increase its overall efficiency. The energy components carried away by the exhaust, are primarily results of incomplete combustion, incomplete expansion, sensible heat, and latent heat of the water vapor created by burning of the hydrogen component of fuel. This paper provides a simple analysis of a typical vehicle energy and power demand in acceleration and steady driving, and looks at the management of heat recovery energy and power, which could reach the 25% range in steady driving and much more in city driving (available energy increasing with decreased engine efficiency). Quasiturbine systems using...

...is in the vapor phase. The mass of the piston is such that it maintains a constant pressure of 200 kPa inside the cylinder. Now steam at 0.8 MPa and 400°C is allowed to enter the cylinder from a supply line until all the liquid in the cylinder has vaporized. Determine (a) the final temperature in the cylinder and (b) the mass of the steam that has entered.
0.8MPa 400oC
2 Question 3: (20 points)
A well-insulated rigid tank contains 3 kg of a saturated liquid–vapor mixture of water at 200 kPa. Initially, three-quarters of the mass is in the liquid phase. An electric resistor placed in the tank is connected to a 120-V source, and a current of 10 A flows through the resistor when the switch is turned on. Determine how long it will take to vaporize all the liquid in the tank. Also, show the process on a T-v diagram with respect to saturation lines.
Question 4: (20 points)
Steam enters the condenser of a steam power plant at 20 kPa and a quality of 95 percent with a massflowrate of 20,000 kg/h. It is to be cooled by water from a nearby river by circulating the water through the tubes within the condenser. To prevent thermal pollution, the river water is not allowed to experience a temperature rise above 10°C. If the steam is to leave the condenser as saturated liquid at 20 kPa, determine the massflowrate of the cooling...

...Volume and MassFlowRate Measurement, Page 1
Volume and MassFlowRate Measurement
Author: John M. Cimbala, Penn State University Latest revision: 09 December 2009
Introduction and notation • In many engineering applications, either massflowrate or volume flowrate must be measured. • Notation used in this learning module: o Velocity V and volume V are distinguished either by adding a bar through the V to indicate volume ( V ) or by using a different font (V). o Massflowrate m and volume flowrate V are indicated by adding an overdot on m or V respectively. o Some authors use Q for volume flowrate, but this gets confused with heat transfer – I prefer V . • If the density ρ of the fluid is known, massflowrate and volume flowrate are related by m = ρV . • In all the examples used in this learning module, we consider only incompressible flow. Special care must be taken when the flow is compressible, such as the flow of air or natural gas through a pipeline. • Most of the instruments discussed here measure volume flowrate; other instruments measure mass...

...HEATENGINE WORKING CYCLES
An engine is a device which transforms one form of energy into another form. However, while transforming energy from one form to another form, the efficiency of conversion plays an important role. Normally, most of the engines convert thermal energy to mechanical work and therefore they are called ‘heatengines’. Heatengine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal energy and utilizes this thermal energy to perform useful work. Depending upon whether the working substance is a gas or a liquid-vapour, there are two kinds of cycles, the non-phase change cycle and the phase change cycle. The non-phase change cycle employs a gas which remains in the same phase throughout the working cycle. The phase change cycle employs a substance that is usually a liquid to start with but which becomes a vapour after energy intake as heat, and may even be superheated during part of the cycle. This vapour is later condensed to repeat the cycle. In all present day phase change cycles, energy addition to the working fluid occurs outside the device, where work is done. In most non-phase change cycles, energy addition occurs in the cylinder where work is done.
Apart from the difference in cycles due to the nature of the working substance, working cycles may also be classified as open and closed cycles. In an...

...Discounted Cash Flow Method (DCF) for instance, Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE), Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF), and Dividend Discount Model, and the Relative Valuation Techniques, for instance Price Earnings Ratio (P/E) and Price Book Value Ratio (P/BV). Dividend Discount Model requires input of next year’s expected dividend distributed, a required rate of return by shareholders and an estimation of growth rate. Since JetBlue does not pay out dividend before listed (despite dividend distributed to preferred shares shareholders), such model is considered as inapplicable. The FCFE and FCFF method were developed for firms which does not distribute dividend and their valuation is based on the free cash flow available to the equity holders or to the firm, and thus calculate the share price of a firm after attributing outstanding shares. The difference between the FCFE and FCFF method lies on the discount rate uses, where the latter uses cost of capital as the discount rate, the former uses cost of equity as the discount rate. A significant and largely assumed factor is used in two models is the expected growth rate of the firm, which is not provided in text in the case though can be examined from Exhibit 13, which is JetBlue’s revenue per plane is assumed to grow at a rate of 16% in the first year, and at a constant...

...Exercise 5: Cardiovascular Dynamics: Activity 1: Studying the Effect of Blood Vessel Radius on Blood FlowRate Lab Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.
1. Blood flow is measured in
You correctly answered: b. ml/min.
2. Which of the following has the greatest effect on blood flow?
You correctly answered: a. blood vessel radius
3. Which of the following would not result in a decrease in the blood vessel radius?
You correctly answered: c. vasodilation
4. The diameter of the blood vessel is the same as
You correctly answered: b. two times the radius of the blood vessel.
5. The opening of the blood vessel where the blood flows is called theYou correctly answered: b. lumen.
Experiment Results Predict Question:
Predict Question 1: What do you think will happen to the flowrate if the radius is increased by 0.5 mm?
Your answer : b. The flowrate will increase.
Predict Question 2: Do you think a graph plotted with radius on the X-axis and flowrate on the Y-axis will be linear (a straight line)?
Your answer : a. yes
Stop & Think Questions:
What is the driving force for blood flow?
Your answer : a. viscosity
Correct answer: b. pressure gradient
How does the body increase the blood vessel radius?
Your answer : a. smooth muscle contraction...

...Name: Ashlei Sickles
Exercise 5: Cardiovascular Dynamics: Activity 4: Studying the Effect of Blood Pressure on Blood FlowRate Lab Report
Pre-lab Quiz Results
You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.
1. Pressure changes in the cardiovascular system primarily result from
You correctly answered: b. changes in the force of contraction of the heart.
2. What is the driving force for blood flow?
You correctly answered: d. pressure gradient
3. Which of the following is directly proportional to blood flow?
You correctly answered: e. blood vessel radius and pressure gradient
4. Arteries close to the heart need to be able to compensate for
You correctly answered: c. pressure changes.
05/23/13
page 1
Experiment Results
Predict Question:
Predict Question 1: What effect do you think increasing the pressure will have on the fluid flowrate?
Your answer : b. The fluid flowrate will increase.
Predict Question 2: Do you think a graph plotted with pressure on the X-axis and flowrate on the Y-axis will be linear (a
straight line)?
Your answer : a. yes
Stop & Think Questions:
This experiment uses pressure changes to model
You correctly answered: c. changes in the force of contraction of the heart.
Experiment Data:
Flow (ml/min)
35.0
70.1
105.1
140.2
175.2
210.3
245.3
280.4...