Heart and Lung Diseases

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Heart and Respiration diseases

What is a cardiovascular disease?

Cardiovascular disease or heart disease is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular diseases are very deadly. It remains the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common. Some of the cardiovascular diseases are hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease and heart failure.

What is a respiratory disease?

Respiratory disease is a class of diseases that involve every part of the lungs including the nerves and muscles of the lungs. Some of the respiratory diseases are pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and lung cancer.

Hypertensive heart disease

Cause
Hypertensive heart disease is caused by the arterial hypertension or high blood pressure that affects the heart.
Symptoms
The symptoms and signs of hypertensive heart disease will depend on whether or not it is accompanied by heart failure. In the absence of heart failure, hypertension is usually symptomless. Symptoms and signs of chronic heart failure can include: * Fatigue

* Irregular pulse or palpitations
* Weight gain
* Nausea
* Shortness of breath
* An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly)

Cure
Treatment of hypertensive heart disease aims to normalize the elevated blood pressure and prevent and treat the cardiac consequences of hypertension. The risk of cardiovascular disease and death can be reduced by lifestyle modifications: * Dietary advice

* Regular aerobic exercise
* Moderation of alcohol
* Cessation of smoking

Coronary heart disease

Cause
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis (sometimes called “hardening” or “clogging” of the arteries) is the buildup of cholesterol and fatty deposits (called plaques) on the inner walls of the arteries. These plaques can restrict blood flow to the heart muscle by physically clogging the artery or by causing abnormal artery tone and function. Without an adequate blood supply, the heart becomes starved of oxygen and the vital nutrients it needs to work properly.

Symptoms
* Chest pain or discomfort, also called angina
* Shortness of breath when exercising or during another vigorous activity. * A fast heartbeat
* Nausea
* Increased sweating
Cure
Lifestyle:
* Weight control
* Cessation of smoking
* Regular aerobic exercise
Surgery:
* Coronary artery bypass
* Heart transplant

Heart Failure

Cause
Heart failure (HF), often called congestive heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heart is unable to provide sufficient pump action to distribute blood flow to meet the needs of the body. Common causes of heart failure include heart attack and other forms of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.

Symptoms
* Shortness of breath
* Leg swelling
* Exercise intolerance
Cure
Medication:
* Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: a drug that widens blood vessels to lower blood pressure, improve blood flow and decrease the workload on the heart. * Digoxin: increases the strength of your heart muscle contractions. It also tends to slow the heartbeat

Surgery:
* Coronary bypass surgery
* Heart transplant
* Heart pumps (LVADs): these mechanical devices are implanted into the abdomen or chest and attached to a weakened heart to help it pump

Pneumonia

Cause
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung—affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. It is usually...
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