Healthcare Systems

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Comparing the U.S Health Care System with Canada
Xy-za Castro
California State University Eastbay

Table content
AbstractPage 3
IntroductionPage 4
Review Of literaturePage 5
Discussion of U.S and Canada health carePage 11
ConclusionPage 13
RecommendationPage 14
ReferencePage 15

Abstract
The United States health care system has been the center of debates, and is constantly being compared to Canada’s health care system. This research will look in depth about the development of each countries health care system, as well as comparing both countries by looking at their healthcare delivery system, financing, and how their insurance works. The U.S health expenditures exceed Canada’s, but yet United States still has a high number of uninsured citizens.

Introduction
The United States health care system has been the center for much heated debate between politicians, law makers, leaders, and health experts. With the United States being the leader in advance medical technology, and high health care spending, somehow it has many uninsured citizens. In the 1930’s, Americans and Canadians had similar health care concept. Both tried to alleviate health care gaps by increasing use of employment-based insurance plans (Dressel, 2006). Both also encouraged nonprofit private insurance plans like Blue Cross, as well as for profit insurance plans (Dressel 2010). To this day, Americans continue to practice the same concept while Canada now has Medicare which is a government-funded universal health insurance program which was passed in 1957, 1966, and 1984 (“Canadian Museum of”, 2010). While the majority of developed countries are now providing a national health insurance program financed and run by government, the United States is considered as a fragmented health care system because people obtain health care through different means (Shi, Singh 2012). The basic component of a health service delivery system make up the quad-function model: financing, insurance, delivery, and payment. We look at how the United States and Canada’s health care system was developed, as well as contrast each system.

Review of literature
United States has a pluralistic control health care system meaning that the U.S health care system is dependent upon a free market system, and very fragmented, and there is no overall governance. The U.S health care system is considered one of the best in the world, mainly because of our advanced medical technology, and our state of the art facilities. With the United States state of the art facilities and medical technology, the U.S spends the most financially on their healthcare system, but still America have the most uninsured, uneven quality, and administrative waste. For example, U.S citizens spent $5,267 per capita for healthcare in 2002; this is 53% more than any other country (Anderson, Hussey, Frogner & Waters, 2005). The U.S health care system is both financed publically and privately through a market based system. Even in market- based systems, the government may provide health care to vulnerable people. For instance, in the U.S., federal funds support Medicare, which covers the elderly and disabled, and state and federal funds support Medicaid, which covers low-income people (Financing Health Care, Page 1). However, private elements of the U.S health care system dominate public elements. “An acceptable health care delivery system should have two primary objectives: 1) it must enable all citizens to obtain health care services when needed, and 2) the services must be cost effective and meet certain established standards of quality. The U.S health care delivery system falls short of both these ideals.” (Shi, Singh. 2012. Page 5). About 84% of the population is covered by either public (26%) or private (70%) health insurance. Approximately 61% of health insurance coverage is employment related, largely due to the cost savings...
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